Abstract: As far as there is a need to increase the efficiency of data transfer, the trials of developments communication systems are appeared. In this study, four modulation techniques and three PN sequence code lengths are studied, to indicate the best performance. The study included BER calculations for each modulation technique or PN code is used in this FHSSsystem. MATLAB Simulink with run time of 10 is used to simulate each modulation technique. And Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel is used as an RF channel. Finally, after we present the simulation results, we deduce which modulation technique is the most suitable for FHSSsystem and what is the advantage of the longer PN code.
communicationsystembased on radio frequency (RF) communication protocols for secure real-time data or image transmission. A reconfigurable hardware architecture is developed to ensure the interconnection between two field programmable gate array development platforms through XBee RF modules. To ensure the synchronization and encryption of data between the transmitter and the receiver, a feedback masking hyperchaotic synchronization technique based on a dynamic feedback modulation has been implemented to digitally synchronize the encrypter hyperchaotic systems. The obtained experimental results show the relevance of the idea of combining XBee (Zigbee or Wireless Fidelity) protocol, known for its high noise immunity, to secure hyperchaotic communications. In fact, we have recovered the information data or image correctly after real-time encrypted data or image transmission tests at a maximum distance (indoor range) of more than 30 m and with maximum digital modulation rate of 625,000 baud allowing a wireless encrypted video transmission rate of 25 images per second with a spatial resolution of 128 × 128 pixels. The obtained performance of the communicationsystem is suitable for secure data or image transmissions in wireless sensor networks.
In order to realize the control of indoor clean robot, a design scheme of wirelesscommunication technology based on white light LED was used to design the system. By analyzing the control method of indoor cleaning robot, the results of table 1 are shown in the comparison of all kinds of wirelesscommunication channels. The experimental results show that VLC is applied to the control direction of indoor clean robot, and has a strong advantage in electromagnetic sensitive field. With the development of visible light communication technology, the intelligent control based on white LED wirelesscommunication will become a new research hotspot. In particular, the application of visible light communication technology to intelligent control is of great significance and will be of great value in the field of intelligent services.
A security system is necessary for a building to guarantee the safety of the residents. The security system has gone through single-route monitor system, control loop monitor system, and processor plus multimedia monitor system eras in the past twenty years. With rapid development of national economic construction, there is a great demand and dependent on patriotic in various industries. The international price of petroleum has been kept at a high level in recent years, so production efficiency on domestic oilfield is urgently needed to be improved, new requirements for oilfield information construction is raised, construction of information and digitalization become development direction for oilfield The Distribution State of working environment in oilfield is very special, the site of oil- well is distributed dispersedly, but distribution area is widely, oil exhauster continuous working for 24h,
Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a network of wireless sensor nodes, which monitor mobile health when placed carefully on the human body or in the wearable cloths. WBAN have a great potential for the growth and development of the future ubiquitous health systems, however; the security concern associated with the current WBAN is an alarming challenge. Security of a body area network (BAN) is unavoidable as it is mainly used for securing the life of patients and soldiers. By securing the BAN we actually secure the life of its wearer. Two techniques i.e. Physiological values (PV’s) based key management ,which generate random keys by using the vital signs of human body and Pre-loading based scheme, which will be used to strengthen the security of our PVs based scheme. The potential limitation of PV’s is short keys generation, which can be easily brute forced and high computational cost whereas in Pre- loading the keys are not random and require enough keys storage. In this paper we will merge PV’s and pre-loading techniques by using electrocardiography (EKG/ECG)
In this chapter, a simple and effective anti-eavesdropping OFDM system is pro- posed by exploiting coordinate interleaving at partial subcarriers of each OFDM sig- nal. Subcarriers that perform coordinate interleaving are chosen according to the real-time channel state information between the transmitter and intended receiver. Both subcarrier channel gain and phase are investigated for determining whether a subcarrier is to be interleaved, leading to two different coordinate interleaving schemes. More specifically, the transmitter interleaves the real and imaginary com- ponents of a subcarrier symbol when its associated channel gain (or channel phase) is larger than a predefined threshold. Based on channel reciprocity, the legitimate receiver can locally deduce subcarriers that undergo coordinate interleaving without any additional signaling. In contrast, due to the independence of spatially separate wireless channels in a rich multipath environment, the subcarrier coordinate inter- leaving pattern is unavailable to eavesdroppers at a third location. Consequently, de-interleaving at eavesdroppers is disrupted and eavesdropping is then prevented. In order to simultaneously evaluate the eavesdropping resilience and transmission reliability of anti-eavesdropping communication systems, a novel performance evalua- tion criterion, named probability of confidential transmission, is also proposed in this study. Compared to existing security approaches, the proposed anti-eavesdropping OFDM system does not require eavesdropping channel information or additional in- formation exchange, only needs minor modifications to off-the-shelf systems, and has low computational complexity.
ABSTRACT: A Wireless Underground Communication Networks (WUCN’s) consists of wireless device that operates below the ground surface. These devices are either (1) buried completely under dense soil, or (2) placed within a bounded open underground space, such as the underground mines and road/subway tunnels. The main difference between WUCN’s and the terrestrial wirelesscommunication networks is the communication medium. In this research paper, a signal propagation characteristic is described in these constrained areas. First, a channel model is described for electromagnetic (EM) waves in the soil medium. This model characterizes not only the propagation of EM waves, but also other effects such as the multipath, soil composition, water content and burial depth. Second, the magnetic induction (MI) techniques are analyzed for communication through soil. Based on the channel model, the MI waveguide technique for communication is developed in order to address the high attenuation challenges of MI waves through soil. Furthermore, a channel model, i.e. the multimode model, is provided in order to characterize the wireless channel for WUCN’s in underground mines and road/subway tunnels. The multimode two cases for the underground communication, i.e., the tunnel channel and the room-and-pillar channel. Finally, the research challenges for the designcommunication protocols for WUCN’s in both the underground environments are discussed based on the analysis of the signal propagation.
Limited Battery Power Sensor nodes are battery powered and thus has very limited energy capacity. This crucial constraint presents many new challenges in the development of hardware and software, the design of network architectures and numerous protocols for WSNs such as routing, communication and data aggregation etc. to prolong the overall operational lifetime of network. Any sensor node can perform the desired tasks till it has the optimum level of remaining battery power. To use this limited amount of battery power in an efficient way is a biggest challenge to prolong the network lifetime and target monitoring. Communication leads to the application of WSN in both civilian and military applications. Sensors are mainly used to detect various kinds of physical parameters as following:
node concentration problem, we design a new cluster head selection algorithm based on node connectivity and devise cluster maintenance algorithms. Moreover, to guarantee data communication reliability, we use message success rate, which is one of popular measures for data communication reliability, in order to select a routing path. Finally, to reduce data communication overhead, we use only the information of neighboring nodes during both cluster construction and cluster head selection phases. Through our performance analysis, we show that our protocol outperforms existing schemes in terms of communication reliability and energy efficiency. Clustering protocols are often used in sensor networks. In many deployment scenarios, security is a key concern. In this paper we provide a secure solution to a commonly used clustering protocol, the LEACH protocol. We show that our protocol, the GS-LEACH protocol is more energy efficient than any of the secure flavors of LEACH. The GS-LEACH (grid- basedsecure LEACH) protocol uses pre deployment key distribution using prior knowledge of the deployment area. We also provide a detailed security analysis of our protocol and show that it is more secure than the secure versions of LEACH. Finally with the results of our simulation experiments we show that our protocol is very energy efficient and provides a longer network lifetime compared to the other flavors of LEACH.
The IEEE 802.16 characterizes the standard for broadband wireless access covering the physical layer and medium access particulars for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN). The IEEE 802.16 Air Interface Standard is an innovation that is assuming a key part in altered broadband wireless MAN [1-2]. The Forward Error Correction (FEC) component in the standard assumes an essential part in its execution. A number of strategies are being utilized to accomplish exceedingly powerful error-control coding, for example, convolution codes and concatenated codes. However, Interleaver design becomes a major part in the FEC instrument. The point of interleaving is to reorder the approaching information and make the neighboring bits non-contiguous by a component, to adapt to the burst errors happening throughout the transmission of information over the channel. Memory usage and frequent memory utilization to time are a critical piece of Interleaver design, focusing on less memory use and decreased memory access with a specific end goal to decrease the power dissemination of the overall system. A memory-efficient Interleaver design strategy has been proposed in , where the creator exhibits a separated memory bank design for the execution of Interleaver for IEEE 802.16e. An efficient memory address control strategy that can enhance the execution Interleaver is proposed in , yet no points of interest are given. An examination of the impacts of interleaving procedure on otherworldly effectiveness of IEEE 802.16 for various situations is done in . They likewise measured the framework throughput and Interleaver square defers, and proposed answers for Interleaver design. In, the creators explore auxiliary conduct of Interleaving parameters and propose a few streamlining techniques for the convolution code (CC) Interleaver of IEEE 802.16 standard. In this paper, we introduce an efficient Interleaver design for IEEE 802.16 system on FPGA. This paper concentrates on the Interleaver design of the system actualized in . Our objective is to accomplish least memory use, quicker interleaving, and expanded velocity of the general system. We utilize the interleaving technique characterized in the standard and present an efficient FPGA execution of the proposed design.
 Sepideh Zareei, Elham Babaee, Rosli Salleh, Saeed Moghadam,” Employing Orphan Nodes to Avoid Energy Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks”, www.scirp.org, 2013.  Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Hari Balakrishnan, “EnergyEfficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks”, Published in the Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 4-7, 2000.
ABSTRACT: Novel advance in wireless communications and electronics have led to the development of low-cost, low power and multifunctional small smart sensors. These sensors have the ability to sense, process data and communicate with each other via a wireless connection. Collection of a large number of these sensors is known as a wireless sensor network (WSN). In wireless sensor networks nodes are deployed to detect events or environmental phenomena by sensing, processing and forwarding data to an interested user. Clustering is an effective and practical way to enhance the system performance of WSNs. In this paper, we learn a secure data transmission for cluster-based WSNs (CWSNs), where the clusters are formed dynamically and periodically. We propose two Secure and Efficient data Transmission (SET) protocols for CWSNs, called SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS, by using the Identity-Based digital Signature (IBS) scheme and the Identity-Based Online/Offline digital Signature (IBOOS) scheme, respectively. In SET-IBS, security relies on the hardness of the Difﬁe-Hellman problem in the pairing domain. SET-IBOOS further reduces the computational overhead for protocol security, which is crucial for WSNs, while its security relies on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem. We show the feasibility of the SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS protocols with respect to the security requirements and security analysis against various attacks. The calculations and simulations are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed protocols.
ABSTRACT: Smart grid communication facilitate intelligent and distributed electric power transmission systems, but also introduces many security problems. In this paper the concept of dynamic secret is applied to design dynamic secret based authentication and encryption scheme for smart grid wirelesscommunication. Between two parties of communication, the previous packets are coded as retransmission sequence, where retransmitted packet is marked as “1” and the other is marked as “0.” During the communication, the retransmission sequence is generated at both sides to update the dynamic encryption key. Any missing or misjudging in retransmission sequence would prevent the adversary from achieving the keys. In addition with this we introduce a new protocol, Integrated Authentication and Confidentiality (IAC), to provide efficientsecure AMI communications in smart grid. With the help of IAC, an AMI(Advanced Metering Infrastructure) system can provide trust services, data privacy, and integrity by mutual authentications whenever a new smart meter initiates and joins the smart grid AMI network.
The wireless sensor network is an emerging technology, which is used to sense and monitor the environment. As the nodes are deployed in an open environment, the security is one of the essen- tial factors. The cryptography techniques can ensure confidentiality, integrity and authentication. However, wireless sensor network also needs to deal with inside and outside attackers. To deal with outside attackers, attacks by compromised or malicious nodes, trust management system is suggested by many researchers in the area of wireless sensor network. Trust management system can be implemented in various applications for security management such as secure data aggre- gation, secure cluster head selection, trusted routing, access control, etc. Many researchers pro- vide different kind of solutions for these secure applications based on trust management. Howev- er, to incorporate, all such applications on a single sensor node in the network, it is essential to design and develop a trust management system, which considers various aspects and applications of wireless sensor network. As a result, in this paper, we would like to propose a parameter and trust factor basedsecurecommunication framework and design a trust management system for wireless sensor networks. Our main contribution is to identify various parameters and trust fac- tors which influences on trust in wireless sensor network and developing a framework for a trust management systembased on various parameters and trust factors. The working of the proposed model is shown by simulation experiments conducted in MATLAB for the application of securecommunication, data aggregation and intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks.
an H-Jtag debugging excuse; and a switch to select the start mode. It is a basic condi- tion for the operation of an ARM embedded system. In addition, the module has some peripheral circuits and four USB ports. A USB interface acts as a slave interface for downloading the kernel and file system from the host under the boot loader. Three other USB ports serve as master interfaces for connecting USB external devices. Three TEL level 9-hole serial ports are connected with a wireless data transmission module and a GPS module after level conversion. A TEL is used to communicate with the host during debugging. An Ethernet interface is used to mount the file system through the network file system (NFS) protocol from the host during the debugging phase and to download the kernel and file system from the host using the trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) or NFS protocol during the development phase. An image acquisition module is used to capture real-time images. A touch-screen liquid crystal display is used to display the acquired images and user interface. A video graphic array port can be used to access the PC display screen, an audio interface is used for sound collection, and a buzzer is used to debug the sound. Figure 1 shows the overall framework of the wirelesscommunication module, and Figure 2 shows the physical object.
The primary objective of our research and development was to automate and computerize the process of admission in the educational institute which would improve the efficiency of the process. Objective has been achieved successfully. The Admin adds information into the database regarding various candidates, departments, programmes, hostels, documents, etc., using various forms provided in the system. At day of admission, status of candidate can be updated as required. Finally, the admission receipt of the candidate can be generated. Database access is made authorized and cannot be accessed by unauthorized personnel. So, this automated and computerized system can be said as secure, efficient and user friendly.
In the literature, many researches tried to solve the problem of job scheduling in cloud computing using artificial intelligence techniques such as genetic algorithm and ant colony. Unfortunately, the proposed techniques have some problems. Neural Networks designed to mimic the way that the human brain executes a specific task or function. Its most important feature is the adaptive nature, where “learning by example” is used to solve complex or ambiguous systems problems, pattern classification and recognition. ANNs are trained using different learning rates, parameters and propagation methods. It learn by changing the connections between the input and output layers. Networks performance is affected by number of layers, number of nodes and training algorithms. ANNs are trained by iterating the recombination, mutation and fitness selection until developing chromosomes with accurate ANN. After neural network has been trained in certain information collection, it can be used to predict new situation. The suitable output is generated at the output layer at the end of the learning or training process. Better results can be achieved by using neural network architecture with proper selection of input variable and training set. Neural networks are widely used for identifications, classification, and prediction when a vast amount of information is available. By examining hundreds, neural network detects important relationships and patterns in information. The advantages of using neural networks are: learn and adjust to new cases on their own, lend them to massive parallel processing, function without complete or well-structured information and cope with huge volume of information with many dependant variables. Finally, neural network can learn to classify new input instantly that has not been seen before while the genetic algorithm finds acceptable solution within the solution space. Thus, the job scheduling result would be optimized using neural network by finding new set of classifications based on the provided tasks. Therefore, solving and optimizing the scheduling problems in cloud computing environment can be achieved using artificial neural networks.
As society develops quickly and people attach more importance to environmental protection, it is of great research significance to intelligently monitor the environment. Based on the sensor network, doing research on live monitor of water quality, first of all, this paper designs data collecting nodes under water ,which realize communication and organization by means of sound waves; and then it adds dada collecting nodes which automatically form networks by means of Zigbee system form network in every water region; and then it is designed to gather data by wireless network coordinator which are transmitted to servers by GPRS; at last, developed information-alarmed system deal with the data. According to tests, they show that this system is of theoretical meanings and practical value on water monitoring.
Security is essential for e-health system as it provides highly sensitive distributed medical data and exchanged among the healthcare professionals, customers and providers over Internet. Internet is an open access system that allows anyone to participate and access the data. Hence, it is necessary to protect the data, service from the unauthorized visibility, use and also maintain a high degree of accessibility. It is achieved using suitable access control policies and techniques that enforce differentiated levels of service visibility and access to the users. This paper introduces a Secure and Auditable Agent- basedCommunication Protocol (SAACP) which performs on key exchange mechanism with mobile agents to reduce the delay in communication. Intelligent mobile agents are proposed for dynamically negotiating the policy of the users. This protocol offers user friendly, privacy and safe communication through well-built secure mechanism that gives confident to the users and healthcare professional to access the e-health system.
In this paper we have presented a new system for digital image communication which is a combination of Compression, Cryptography and Steganography. The method tries to provide improved security through AES encryption enhanced with keystream generator and steganography using some spatial and frequency domain techniques which are resistant to some statistical attacks. The JPEG compression aims to reduce the encryption time which otherwise on plain image data is quite high. We have also tried to provide a comparison of the four steganographic techniques and the results show that Variable LSB, DCT based embedding and DCT based MOD-4 algorithms perform better than DCT-Steg in terms of PSNR for stego image. The performance of the steganographic algorithms also depends on the characteristics of the cover image. Also MOD-4 takes more time due to construction of vGQCs. The histograms and entropies of stego images are similar to those of the cover images. Same is the case for original images and decrypted images. The proposed method provides acceptable image quality with very little distortion in the image.