Abstract- The study is intended to determine the effectiveness of the approach to scientific models of problembasedlearning to the ability to solve the problem and the result of learning of students in the eyes of subjects science knowledge of nature in the school base . The subjects of this study were 28 students of class IV A SDN Janti I Waru Academic Year 2018/2019. This study uses design one group pretest-posttest . The independent variable in this study is the scientific approach with the problembasedlearning model while the dependent variable is the ability to solve problems and student learning outcomes . Instruments research were used directly is sheet test to solve the problem and sheets test results of learning . Data collection techniques using pretest tests ( pretest and posttest ). Mechanical analysis of the instrument using the test validity and test reliability , while technical analysis of the data using a test for normality , test of homogeneity , test the hypothesis . P- value results from paired samples t-test Sig. (2-tailed) = 0,000 <0.05, then Ha is accepted or there is a significant difference between the results of the pretest and posttest . Based on the results of the research and discussion it can be concluded that there is the effectiveness of the scientific approach to the probem basedlearning model on improving the ability to solve problems and learning outcomes of students of science subjects in elementary schools .
Learning analytics (LA) is an effective way of using academic data that allows us to understand and improve learning in various fields. For example, Bazelais, Lemay, and Doleck (2018) investigated the relationship between students ’ prior achievement (high school average) with performance in a pre-university physics program by using data of 9877 students’ pre-university physics course. As the results, they found that prior high school performance achievement was a strong predictor of college physics course per- formance. In higher education, support of the technology makes it possible to collect LA data from new resources such as learning management systems (LMS). Through LMS, students’ learning logs can be collected and data from them can be used to define learning behavior variables when conducting online learning, such as number of logins, pages accessed, and time spent in the system, which can show students’ frequency and duration of participation (Morris, Finnegan, & Wu, 2005). Moreover, some studies have found that certain types of online participation behaviors, such as “ page hits, ” are corre- lated with grades (Ramos & Yudko, 2008; Wang & Newlin, 2000). By using an e-book system, students can use multiple functions of e-books such as going to the next page or previous page, adding bookmarks, underlining, annotations, and keyword searching, and all these log data can be collected by the system. Additionally, the system can also know when and for which course the e-book was used, which is very useful information in analyzing students’ learning activities (Ogata et al., 2015). Oi, Okubo, Shimada, Yin, and Ogata (2015) analyzed students’ learning behaviors by collecting e-book logs before and after the main content learning in class to investigate the relationships of preview and review behaviors with academic achievement. Their findings indicate that preview- ing is more deeply relevant to academic achievement and assessment than reviewing.
Since Barrows introduced his PBL taxonomy in 1986, there have been few studies which have specifically tested closed loop PBL. Until 1998, the Southern Illinois University’s School of Medicine claimed that no study had looked specifically at the closed loop PBL approach (Distlehorst & Robbs, 1998). In 2009, although based on a small quantity of evidence, one meta-analysis reported that PBL does much better, in terms of educational goals, when the closed loop variation of PBL is used (Walker & Leary, 2009). Although closed loop PBL did appear to improve medical students’ learning outcomes (d = 0.54) assessed at the concept, principle, and application level, “the fact that PBL does so much better when it uses the closed loop problembasedapproach provides support for Barrows’ claims about potential benefits in terms of education goals” (2009, p. 23). Additionally, when the inclusion of 47 outcomes from studies outside the fields of medical education and allied health were added to the data set for analysis, PBL students in teacher education studies tended to do better than their lecture-based counterparts (Walker & Leary, 2009). Walker and Leary concluded that it seems logical to expect that the type of PBL implementation used in other disciplines might also play a role in learning outcomes. Walker and Leary’s findings lend support for an investigation using closed loop PBL as the teaching intervention with the treatment group to address the research problem in this study. Walker and Leary (2009) further concluded that along with specifying which variation of PBL a researcher intends to use in their study, one other important design element to consider, to optimise and maximise the effects of PBL, is its key component, the problems themselves.
All skills in a prerequisite structure are initialized with a value between 0 and 1, which is calculated automatically from the prerequisite relation. These initialized values are then updated based on specific player interactions within the DEG. In essence, specific skill probabilities increase when the user is progressing successfully and decrease when not. Thus, these changing probabilities can be used to infer the current skill state of the learner, and the accuracy will increase the more learning actions the learner performs within the DEG. Depending on the skill probabilities of the user, and their most pressing needs at that specific time, different cognitive, meta-cognitive or motivational hints (text, dialogues, videos etc.) can be selected to be displayed to the learner within the DEG. Micro adaptive approaches, such as introduced above, have been integrated successfully in the DEG project ELEKTRA (Kickmeier-Rust et al. 2006). In ELEKTRA the individual LeS are related to physics experiments involving light and magnetism, and the micro adaptive interventions are mostly realized as NPC dialogs. However these interventions are confined to specific LeS and the sequence in which the individual LeS are presented is constrained to the overall game narrative. From a pedagogical poit of view this can lead to a DEG which can provide an adaptive learning experience only within the specific LeS and not allowing a dynamic adjustment of the overall DEG towards the evolving needs and preferences of the learner. These limitations were addressed in the 80Days project, which focuses on teaching geographical content and environmental issues. By introducing macro adaptive approaches such as story pacing and story adaptivity, and combining them with the micro adaptive approaches outlined above, 80Days provides a versatile and holistic adaptive approach towards a more effective learning and gaming experience within DEGs.
PBL has been defined by different writers. For the purpose of this paper, a few such definitions are cited. Savery (2006) who defined PBL as an instructional (and curricular) learner-centred approach that empowers learners to conduct research, integrate theory and practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem. PBL is an approach to instruction that prepares learners for real-world experience and causes them to learn how to research (Myers, 2008). Mergendoller, Maxwell, and Bellisimo (2006) explained that, PBL provide a more challenging, motivating and enjoyable approach to education. Furthermore, PBL is a subset of the problem-centred learningapproach which is easily identifiable by the use of typically ill- structured problems which lead to ownership of the learning environment (Greening, 1998). Bansal and Kumar (2010) referred to the PBL package as an innovative, interesting and corroborated classroom transaction activities.
Today teachers in schools and lecturers in institutions of higher learning are endowedwith a wide range of new teachingexperiencesthrough web-based teaching and learning approaches (WBTLA), which is not possible before through thetraditional classroom approach. With the use of WBTLA emerged problems related to usability in technical, pedagogical and contextual aspects of teaching and learning. This paper examines usability problems in the context of teaching and learning at higher institutions of learning in Malaysia. By using the framework proposed by Hadjerrout(2010), a survey was carried out to determine the aspects related to usability and the extent to which lecturers believed that they enjoyed teaching as well as faced difficulties in employing WBTLAin their classes. The findings show that while lecturers agreed on technical and pedagogical usability and the extent of difficulties involved which they could overcome, their perceptions and beliefs of contextual usabilityand the extent of the difficulties involvedare less clear. This leaves much to the ability and willingness of each respective institution to invest in the technology and provision of training to the lecturers. Despite the problems identified the lecturers do see that WBTLA has good prospects in the future.
Practical skills are the basic skills and rudiments that students are supposed to possess in their areas of specialization based on the designed modules in the curricula. Dar-Chin, Shao-Tsu and Ming-Hua (2006) postulated that, the world is a global village full of technological and economy based knowledge for people to prosper. Changes are being witnessed in society and industry, teaching and learning approaches, social values diversification etcetera, students can no longer be passive learners and take only what they could get from school alone. However, the findings of the study revealed that demonstration, work basedlearning, simulation, fieldtrip, context basedlearning, discussion, problembasedlearning, tutorials and seminar methods of teaching are the most significant predictor of practical skills of METs students based on the respondents opinion.
learning as a framework for motivating learners and generating high quality learning outcomes. Problem-basedlearning is thus particularly suited to as- sist students towards mastery in a range of generalisable competencies and to support effective adult learning in the cognitive and affective aspects of a course in higher education (Engel as cited in Boud & Feletti, 1991). The research asserted that technology-mediated learning can play an impor- tant role in the problem-solving process (Hedberg, 2000). Although face-to- face collaborative learning techniques have been suggested to enhance the learning experience, it is difﬁ cult to incorporate these concepts into courses without requiring students to collaborate outside of class (Ocker & Yaver- baum, 2001). The results of their research indicate that although students preferred to collaborate in the traditional face-to-face manner, they realized the need for and beneﬁ t of anytime/anyplace collaboration.
is that it is more like a shopping list with limited opportunities for interactions (Smith, 1996, 2000). This was the case as in the classroom the prepared students answered and did not want to deliberate with students who had not adequately prepared or were hesitant to participate. In contrast as McKimm (2008) points out that the authentic PBL approach allows the learner to specify the learning objectives, and shifts the emphasis towards reflecting on the problem. Some aspects of problemlearning are used within legal education. Such examples include students retaining feedback, set assessments, which emulate real life events, or factious circumstances and require the student to application of the law and provide solutions. The aim of this action research project will be to apply the PBL approach within the sessions to determine whether or not students can define their learning goals, and work both individually or collectively to attain their agreed learning outcomes and eventually become independent learners.
The Chi-square test indicated a non-significant difference between the two year groups‟ level of understanding. As can be seen in Table 7 however, more students from the 2010 cohort provided a multistructural response and less student responses were prestructural (meaning they provided a totally incorrect response). In teaching terms, one hopes that an intervention such as PBL will impact positively on student learning outcomes. The researchers believe, based on these results, as well as observations of the students working on the set tutorial tasks each year, that the change in pedagogy to a PBL approach shows promise, even though the result in this study was not statistically significant.
considered the pathway to success in college’. Furthermore, as Johnson et al. identify, ‘the world of work is increasingly collaborative, giving rise to reflection about the way student projects are structured’ (2011, p. 3). In Bahraini Perspectives, all the problems (and resulting projects) are therefore group-based. As part of this process, students are also required to regularly write in their reflective journals, for as Gilardi and Lozza argue, ‘being an effective practitioner means being able to construct situated and local knowledge. The ability to learn from experience through reflection on one’s own actions becomes crucial in this situation’ (2009, p. 247, our emphases). This draws attention to both the reflective element that a PBL approach stimulates, and the ‘situated’ and ‘local’ knowledge, which again suggests that there would not be any need for Bahraini Perspectives if the rest of the curriculum was designed according to PBL principles, because the knowledge would naturally be contextualised. Finally, in her research on student perceptions of PBL, Pepper (2010) quotes one student as saying: ‘there’s a lot of learning going on but NOT much teaching!’ All of this is remarkably positive and makes perfect sense in theory. We will now test this to see how this material compares with our evaluation of what is occurring in Bahraini Perspectives, with a particular focus on teacher and student reflections.
According to Drohan et al. (2011), ‗our future programmes must provide graduates with sufficient domain-specific technical knowledge and the transferable skills essential to succeed in their future professions. PBL will do that!‘ (p. 97). ProblemBasedLearning is a complete approach to learning and teaching, and is basically a paradigm shift from a teacher-focused to a learner-focused approach. In Bahrain Polytechnic‘s case, it will also be a major shift from what has been the institution‘s dominant learning and teaching approach up until now. Implementing ProblemBasedLearning therefore takes some time and needs a firm institution-wide commitment over an extended period of time, as it requires careful planning and considered implementation to be successful. Traditional curriculum is driven by instructional objectives while the PBL Curriculum is outcomes-driven. This means in effect that the ‗what‘ (curriculum), the ‗how‘ (PBL process in the classroom), and the ‗how much‘ (assessment) of learning are all affected in a fundamental way.
Manufacturing in 4 th year. The maintenance component covers about two weeks of class hours, some of which is also allocated to out-of class reading. Table 1 shows an outline of the topics covered by the lectures. During this theoretical coverage students are also introduced to some practical aspects relevant to routine machine tool maintenance. After this coverage on basic maintenance concepts, students are then provided with a case study based assignment of approximately three weeks duration.
thinking skills in Pontianak Islamic Public High School, it is shown that 0 student or 0% is in the ―very high‖ category, 2 students or 6.25% are in the ―high‖ category, 23 students or 71.86% are in the ―medium‖ category, 5 students or 15.63% are in the ―low‖ category and 2 students or 6.25% are in the ―very low‖ category . In addition, from research conducted by  by providing tests of mathematical critical thinking skills conducted by researchers at SMP Ar-Rahman Percut, 2 out of 30 students can answer questions correctly and completely, while others only guess. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the mathematical critical thinking skills of students in SMP of Ar-Rahman Percut are still low. The conclusion drawn from this study is that students do not possess a high critical thinking ability in solving mathematics questions. Students require knowledge they have to make decisions to complete the questions. Decision making requires anticipation so it obtains better ways of thinking knowledge as well as ways of finding different knowledge of every individual. To obtain knowledge of each individual is usually influenced by habits or the environment. The knowledge or cognitive in the learning of each student can explain differences in student success. Critical thinking skills possessed by students will be very advantageous for the future as they with critical thinking skills can decide and solve the problems they will encounter .
Nowadays, the revealing and changing trends in information and communication technology as well as continuing evolution of design methodologies, students of electrical, electronic, telecommunication and computer engineering programs need to acquire important qualities of lifelong learning and self learning to support a through-life ability to respond to advances in technology . PBL has gained acceptance and has been found effective within a variety of disciplines in higher education [2,3]. PBL satisfies three important criteria that promote optimal learning . First, it provides an environment where the student is immersed in a practical, on-going activity in which he/she receives feedback from other students and the instructor. Second, the student receives guidance and support from his/her friends and peers. Learning is not uni-directional (teacher to student), but multidirectional, including other students, tutors, and lecturers. Learning occurs through the multiple interactions within the learning environment. Third, the learning is functional — based on solving a real problem. PBL is based on a foundation of collaboration and integration within a small group context.
It is a teaching technique used in many medical schools to facilitate learning basic science concepts in the context of clinical cases. Students are assigned to groups of 810, and each group is assigned a faculty member who plays the role of a tutor or facilitator as the students work through a case or a problem. This model is very studentcentered. In the PBL approach, complex, realworld problems are used to motivate students to identify and research the concepts and principles they need to know to work through those problems. Students work in small learning teams, bringing together collective skills at acquiring, communicating, and integrated information. In PBL curriculum the problem scenarios serve as central component, a set of problem situations that equip students to become independent inquirers, who see learning and epistemology as flexible entities and perceive that there are also other valid ways of seeing things besides their own perspective. PBL instruction addresses several desirable outcomes of an undergraduate education, particularly critical thinking, research skills, communication skills, and other lifelong learning skills. PBL strategy is remarkably a datable vehicle to develop in students, core knowledge in a content area, cognitive skills (analysis, synthesis, application, evaluation, and critique) and action skills (organizing time, resources, coordination, negotiating, tolerating). In PBL, students first encounter a problem, followed by a student centered inquiry process (Norman and Schmidt, 2000;
There are many challenges for implementing PBL that are not related to the teaching method per se, but to other factors such as faculty attitudes toward PBL, leadership, the culture, and infrastructures needed for PBL. For instance, the faculty attitudes toward PBL can play a role in weakening this teaching approach. Lim (2012) found that some PBL opponents believe that the only way to teach is through direct transmission of information by someone who is an expert in the content. Other instructors perceive PBL as time consuming for teachers because of the workload (Ribeiro, 2011). In addition, PBL opponents worry about the course content coverage (Ribeiro, 2011). Lee, Yoo, and You (2009), in a mixed method study, conducted at aUniversity in South Korea, examined why professors are not embracing any type of constructivist learningapproach (PBL, Team BasedLearning, or Case Study Learning). The qualitative part of the study started with six faculty members, then an instrument was developed to measure the phenomenon. Then, 86 faculty members were given the questionnaire. The results showed that most of the teachers believed that there is no need to change their lecture-based instruction since both the teachers and the students were satisfied with the current teaching method. Some teachers argued that PBL preventedthem from sharing their knowledge and experience with the students (Rakhudu, 2011), made their role passive (Raftery, Clyne, O' Nell, Ward, & Coyne, 2010), and caused the worry that not all students would be active participants in the group (Chiang, Champan, & Elder, 2010).
This study is also relevant to the results of research by reference  stating that the involvement of problem solving makes student learning results increase than the using of traditional approach. Process assessment is used to assess student work, include: performance appraisal, authentic assessment, and portfolio assessment. Process assessment aims to enable lecturers to see how students plan problem-solving, to see how students demonstrate their knowledge and skills. Assessment of learning with PBL was done with authentic assessment.  define authentic assessment as a form of grade assessment that reflects learning, learning results, motivation, and attitudes toward relevant learning activities. Assessment was done with a portfolio that was a systematic collection of student jobs analyzed to see the progress of learning within a certain time within the framework of achieving learning objectives. Reference  suggests that assessment by portfolio can be used for collaborative learning assessment. There are three knowledge structures as the target of assessment of PBLs, among others, conceptual understanding, understanding of principles relating to concept and conceptual relationship and principles to application conditions and procedures .