LSST has no need for any man-made mixing device because it is the counteraction between inertia forces of the ascending gas and the gravity forces of the descending liquid that triggers self-fragmentation and acts as a natural stirrer. This “stirrer” is uniformly distributed over the whole volume; it affects all spatial points of the contacting chamber. Therefore, the back-pipes connecting the separation and contacting chambers are standard tubes rather than some specific injectors. The mode of operation (continuous, periodical, etc.) of drainage and supply of feed liquid, as well as the amount of the recycling liquid, is dictated by both sorption features and liquid properties. It facilitates easy remote control through the control valves. In this way, the lowspeedscrubbing process begins as a counter-flow while it terminates as a co-flow.
ith the technology development the devices requires more accuracy, high speed and low power consumption. World is moving faster by means of wireless media and high speed communication that ultimately increases the use of high frequency analog signals. Generally high speed processing is done by using processors, digital computers, etc. In the real world signals are analog in nature for example video, sound, light. To get digital signal from this we use analog to digital converter for converting analog type of signal to digital nature. If we need to get back analog signal digital to analog converter is required. Analog to digital converters plays a major role in many modern systems to link analog signals with digital systems. Digital system applications can be range from audio to communication applications and to medical applications. These analog to digital converters are implemented using different types of architectures, sizes and speeds. The demand of the comparators are mostly depends on area, speed, and power of the converters.
Frequency synthesizer is one of the important elements for wireless communication application. The speed of VCO and prescaler determines how fast the frequency synthesizer is. A dual modulus prescaler contains logic gates and flip-flops. To fulfill the need of high frequency and low voltage circuit suitable flip-flops must be selected. The prescaler is a circuit employed in high frequency synthesizer designs. In the proposed circuit the technique called the True Single Phase Clock (TSPC) technique, was applied.Divide- by-2/3 prescaler is implemented by TSPC flip-flops. Divide by 32/33 prescaler is implemented by choosing various combinations of 2/3 prescaler and flip-flops. The DMP circuit implemented in 45nm CMOS process and simulation was carried out in Tanner EDA tool. The simulation results are provided. It consumes 86.42µWwith 1V power supply voltage at 2.4GHz.
was born in Izeh, Iran. She got her BSc from Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, in 2007, and MSc from Shahed University, in 2009, respectively, all in Electronic Engineering. Currently she is pursuing her Ph.D. in Electronic Engineering Department at University of Isfahan. Her research interests include Nanoelectronics with emphasis on Carbon Nanotube (CNT) technology, image processing, pattern recognition, and machine vision.
Performance of FF Designs design does not use the least number of transistors; it has the smallest layout area. This is mainly attributed to the signal feed-through scheme, which largely reduces the transistor sizes on the discharging path. In terms of power behavior, the proposed design is the most efficient in five out of the six test patterns. The savings vary in different combinations of test pattern and FF design. For example, if a 25% data switching test pattern is used, the proposed design is more power economical than all except the ACFF design. Its power saving against ep-DCO, CDFF, SCDFF and MHLFF are 22.7%, 6.9%, 8.1% and 8.3% respectively . The ep-DCO design consumes the largest power because of the superfluous internal node discharging problem. ACFF design  power efficiency is even more significant in the cases of zero or low input data switching activity.
The circuit for the detector is shown in Fig.4.Resisitor R3,Transistor M12 and the capacitor C4 forms the detector. The amplified signal from the amplifier is fed in to the detector through capacitor C3,where the capacitor blocks the DC current from influencing the detector operation. Resistor R3 is used for biasing the gate of the transistor M12 .This arrangement provides high gain when the signal amplitude is low and ensures that the drain current of M12 equals to the bias current. Transistor M11 behaves as a constant current source. The bias current through M12 is given as sum of drain current through M11 and current through R3.Capacitor C4 keeps the drain of M12 at a constant voltage. When the input signal amplitude at the gate of M12 increases, the current at the output node increases ,so M12 discharges the capacitor C4 there by Voltage across Mosfet M12 that is Vds decreases, which means voltage drops proportionally to peak input amplitude.
 MeenaPanchore, R.S. Gamad, ―Low Power High Speed CMOS Comparator Design Using .18μm Technology‖,International Journal of Electronic Engineering Research, Vol.2, No.1, pp.71-77, 2010  M. van Elzakker, A.J.M. van Tuijl, P.F.J. Geraedts, D. Schinkel, E.A.M. Klumperink and B. Nauta, "A 1.9W 4.4fJ/Conversion-step 10b 1MS/s Charge-Redistribution ADC," ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers, pp. 244–245, February 2008
Now a days, as growing applications, speed and portability are the major concerns of any smart device it demands small-size, low-power high throughput circuitry. So, sub circuits of any VLSI chip needs high speed operation along with low-power consumption. So that logic circuits are designed using pass transistor logic techniques. . It reduces the number of MOS transistors used in circuit, but it suffers with a major problem that output voltage levels is no longer same as the input voltage level. Each transistor in series has a lower voltage at its output than at its input.
Design has been simulated in 180nm and 100nm for propagation delay on different inputs (mV) to show improvement in speed. Power analysis,DC analysis and AC analysis in 180nm to show the new comparator latch minimum offset voltage and better stability than other two comparators For both the technology width of both nmos and pmos are same i.e. Wn=3um and Wp=6um.
ULP Full Adder is based on ultra-low power diode and XOR gate logic. This ultra-low power diode is configure with PMOS and NMOS such that if low weak logic 0 occurs then this logic 0 restored in ULP Diode as shown in fig. there are several different adder such as hybrid full adder which use low power XNOR gate and output inverter to observe voltage step in 0 1 transition. ULPFA performance is compared with CMOS Full adder, hybrid full adder and BBL PT adder and it found ULPFA is better than other adder in comparison of speed and delay. If technology reduce in ULPFA than power and delay increase so transmission gate logic is used for further improvement.
presented in Fig. 6,is basically a multiplexer based architecture that ensures full swing output voltages at both sum and carry-out terminals. The compact design and smaller transistor count associated with this topology provides significant improvement in the performance of the adder chains embedded in the multiplier. The inherent full swing based adder architecture also eliminates the need of additional swing restoring buffer units and is suitable for cascaded arrangements (as carry save adder blocks as used in this work). The low power dissipation associated with the adder topology essentially reduces the overall power consumption of the multiplier unit and ensures a power efficient high speed computing.
After producing NAND and NOR functions they are utilized to control pass transistors to produce the desired outputs. The structure of FSFA1 is shown in Figure 9. It consists of 18 transistors and a 2-input capacitor network. The maximum critical path of FSFA1 consists of three CNFETs. Considering Figure 9, it is clear that there are two identical modules for Sum and Cout outputs. Pass transistors cause threshold loss problem. To mitigate this problem we have set the diameters of CNTs such that a small threshold voltage is realized for them. This is one advantage of CNFET technology in which we can alter the threshold voltage of transistors easily.
This chapter reveals the design considerations of High Speed parallel multiplier . The design of efficient logic circuits is a fundamental problem in the design of high performance processors. The design of fast parallel multipliers is important, since multiplication is a commonly used and expensive operation.
Each technology mentioned above has their advantages and disadvantages. In order to give a potential estimated cost to the selected method, a typical model of low and medium speed for category 3 marine diesel engines (MDE) were chosen among various DE manufacturer’s which are characterized by their cylinder’s displacement at or above 30 liters per cylinder, used for propulsion power on ocean going vessels such as container ships, oil tankers, bulk carriers and cruise ships, see Table 4. These include fuel emulsions, DWI, EGR, SCR, fuel switching (for new construction vessels) and scrubbers. With regard the fuel switching, we have considered the fact that new vessels will be built with further distillate fuel storage systems over existing vessels. Prices include an LFO separator, a three-way valve, an HFO/LFO blending unit, filters, a viscosity meter and various pumps and piping.
Multipliers play an important role in today’s digital signal processing and various other applications. With advances in technology, many researchers have tried and are trying to design multipliers which offer either of the following design targets – high speed, low power consumption, regularity of layout and hence less area or even combination of them in one multiplier thus making them suitable for various high speed, low power and compact VLSI implementation.Common multiplication method is “add and shift” algorithm. In parallel multipliers number of partial products to be added is the main parameter that determines the performance of the multiplier. To reduce the number of partial products to be added, Modified Booth algorithm is one of the most popular algorithms. To achieve speed improvements Wallace Tree algorithm can be used to reduce the number of sequential adding stages. Further by combining both Modified Booth algorithm and Wallace Tree technique we can see advantage of both algorithms in one multiplier. However with increasing parallelism, the amount of shifts between the partial products and intermediate sums to be added will increase which may result in reduced speed, increase in silicon area due to irregularity of structure and also increased power consumption due to increase in interconnect resulting from complex routing. On the other hand “serial-parallel” multipliers compromise speed to achieve better performance for area and power consumption. The selection of a parallel or serial multiplier actually depends on the nature of application. In this lecture we introduce the multiplication algorithms and architecture and compare them in terms of speed, area, power and combination of these metrics. AND gates are used to generate the Partial Products, PP, If the multiplicand is N-bits and the Multiplier is M-bits then there is N* M partial product. The way that the partial products are generated or summed up is the difference between the different architectures of various multipliers. Multiplication of binary numbers can be decomposed into additions. Consider the multiplication of two 8-bit numbers A and B to generate the 16 bit product P.
Multipliers play an important role in today’s digital signal processing and various other applications. By way of advances in technology, many researchers have tried and are trying to design multipliers which offer either of the following design targets – high speed, low power consumption, regularity of layout and hence less area or great combination of them in one multiplier thus making them suitable for various high speed, low power and compact VLSI implementation design. An efficient multiplier should have following characteristics:
Nowadays, most of the developing countries starts using wind turbine as their backup source to produce electricity. In India, most of the rural village did not get the electricity supply due to the lack of power production source in the country. In order to overcome this dispute, the government of India starts installing wind turbine to produce more electricity so that they can solve the electricity issues. The wind turbines were installed at the high wind speed area such as sea side, hills and mountain areas. This wind turbines can only produce electricty when the wind speed is high enough to rotate the blades. Most of the turbines operates at the minimum speed of 10 m/s to 15 m/s. In this situation, wind with lowspeed are wasted because it was unabled to operate the turbines. There are a lot of areas in many countries where the wind energy is wasted due to the lowspeed reason. In Malaysia, the average wind speed distribution in the country is between the range of 1.9 m/s to 2.9 m/s. This means major places in Malaysia receives low wind speed. The wind energy in this country is wasted due to insufficient technology which can help to harness the low wind energy to produce electrical power.
Benefits of Running Time The running times with non-tilting trains have been improved by increased applied track cant and increased cant deficiency. Tilting trains take advantage of the increased track cant, but the running time benefit in percent compared with non-tilting trains decays. Could the limitation on cant deficiency for tilting trains be updated? Would a limitation as function of speed be feasible? The present study has identified the existing types of limits; but at what levels should the limits be set? Particularly the limitation due to cross-wind is interesting to study. Speed Setting for Low Risk of Motion Sickness and Good Comfort Developing a guideline devoted to train
Available exclusively in Altera’s Stratix III FPGAs, Programmable Power Technology enables every programmable LAB, DSP block, and memory block to deliver high speed or low power, depending on what is required by the specific logic path (shown in Figure 2). In this way, the small percentage of circuits that are timing-critical are set to high speed, with the rest using the low-power setting, resulting in a dramatic 70 percent decrease in leakage power for the low-power logic. In addition, Programmable Power Technology enables an optimal combination of high-speed logic to achieve the desired system performance while the rest of the logic is put into low-power mode, minimizing leakage current and resulting in the lowest power possible.
totally different logic designs is planned during this temporary. Comparison is most elementary mathematical operation that determines if one range is larger than, equal to, or but the opposite range. Comparator is most elementary part that performs comparison operation. This temporary presents comparison between totally different logic designs wont to style 2-Bit magnitude comparator. Comparison between totally different styles is calculated by simulation that's performed at 18nm technology in cadence EDA Tool. It is observed from the Table 3, Proposed Fin FET Two Bit Comparator, We have reduced Dynamic Power 90%, Leakage Power Reduced 87%, Delay reduced 73% and Area Reduced 60% using Cadence 18nm Technology.