International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-8 Issue-12, October, 2019
Table 4 to 8 shows the similarities between an imitated and measured results of various parameters like return loss, VSWR, gain, bandwidth and multiband resonance of various shapes of patches like rectangular, square, circular, elliptical and triangular on heterogeneoussubstrate. It is observed that the simulated and measured results are approximately matched with some variations. The variations are due to small errors occurring during fabrication and testing process. It is cleared that all the proposed antennas on heterogeneoussubstrate work at four or more than four resonance frequencies and covers S (2-4GHz), C (4-8GHz) and X (8-12GHz) bands applications. A VSWR values less than 2 at all the resonance frequencies indicates good impedance matching and minimum signal loss. The obtained radiation pattern of all the resonance frequencies indicates broadside in nature. The maximum gain and maximum bandwidth are noted for higher frequency bands are in the range of 8 dB to 17.2 dB and 967 MHz, which is required for satellite communication.
2 Professor, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering BIT Bangalore, India
Abstract- This letter presents the design of a compact size modified rectangular shaped microstrip line feed with DGS patch antenna is proposed here. DGS structure is used for improving the performance of microstrippatch antenna. The proposed compact size microstrip antenna consist of a microstrip feed line on one side of the substrate with defective ground structure with rectangular slot, other side of ground plane. The parameters of proposed antenna like returns loss, VSWR, radiation pattern, gain are simulated and analyzed using CST Microwave studio suit 2015. The antenna system resonates at 9.256GHz for VSWR=1 and their 2x1 MIMO implementation for wirelessapplications. The antenna system operates four frequency ranges such as 7.14-7.42GHz, 7.6-8.2GHz, 8.2-8.6GHz, 9.8-10.2GHz frequencies for VSWR≤2. A study was performed to implement this antenna in 2x1 MIMO arrangements on the same circuit space with orthogonal polarization. The proposed antenna have Better mutual coupling and better envelope correlation coefficient are achieved.
Recently, multibandpatchantennas are investigated because of coverage of many wireless communication services such as GSM, DCS, CDMA and PCS [2, 3]. Many conventional techniques such as the use of PIN diodes, switches and varactor diodes are used for multiband operation [4, 5 & 6]. But, these designs provide reconfigurable frequency operations with bi-state ON/OFF control. Also, the use of active components increases complexity in the design and their use are difficult to handle because it needs extra biasing network. In , multiband characteristics were achieved through a triangular patch which operates in the range of 1.9-2.1 GHz. In this case, chip capacitors are used instead of varactor diodes. The impedance of an antenna is also controlled through chip capacitors which is a moderate technique.
A highly miniaturized signiﬁcant gain triple band patch antenna loaded with a new modiﬁed double circular slot ring resonator (MDCsRR) metamaterial unit cell is successfully demonstrated. The proposed antenna size is miniaturized by about 68.83% as compared to a conventional patch antenna size (31 . 25 mm × 37 . 05 mm × 0 . 762 mm) operating at the ﬁrst resonant frequency of 3.2 GHz with signiﬁcant calculated antenna gain at all the three bands. As a tradeoﬀ, increased level of miniaturization causes reduction in − 10 dB reﬂection coeﬃcient bandwidth with good radiation pattern in broad side and back side directions. The transmission line model of MDCsRR and IDC loaded patch antenna is presented and fabricated, showing passband characteristic at all the resonating bands. IDC and MDCsRR add ﬁnite capacitance and inductance to the equivalent patch antenna circuit, causing increase in series capacitance and hence reduction in electrical size of the antenna. Multiband operation is achieved by multimode propagation due to MDCsRR and IDC. The proposed antenna has wide range applications in WiMax and WLAN bands.
Eq. no. 8 will return the dimensions of a triangular patch where f is the lowest order resonant frequency, S is the length of the side arm and Ԑ r is the substrate permittivity.
The design method that proved very effective while producing the previous broadband antenna, also proved useful when producing the triangular broadband antenna. Initially the narrowband triangular patch was made using the copper tape and tuned to match the input impedance. The initial construction led to the patch resonating at a frequency higher than 2.45 GHz. numerous attempts were required before the correct dimensions were achieved which allowed the patch to resonate at 2.43 GHz. It was deliberately tuned for 2.43 GHz keeping in mind the frequency shift that will occur from adding parasitic elements. Input impedance was found to be very large at the vertex along the feed axis. The 50-ohm impedance matching can be obtained by feeding the antenna at either above or below the null position at the centre of the patch. The optimum feed coordinates were found to be Y f = 19 mm, X f = 19 mm, where the narrow band antenna returned an input impedance of 47.66+0.76j ohms. Fig 16 shows the performance of a matched narrowband triangular patch. The narrowband antenna had a bandwidth of 91 MHz using 2:1 VSWR and 53 MHz using 1.5:1 VSWR.
ECE Department, Acharya Nagarjuna University
Abstract: A Rectangular Microstrippatch antenna (MPA) for multibandapplications is designed using slotting technique. The proposed antenna supports different range of frequencies, the antenna can be operated at four different bands i.e., X, S, Ku, and C band. The antenna is designed using FR-4 epoxy substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4 and loss tangent of 0.02 The dimensions of the substrate are 36.27 X 30.03 X 1.5748 mm 3 designed antenna resonates at the following frequencies 3.2, 5.3, 6.6, 8.7, 9.4, 10.2, 10.8, 11.4, 12.4, 13.1, and 14.5 GHz with a gain of 11.11, 7.094, 4.40, 1.19, 6.65, 4.47, 2.69, 4.23, 3.24, 8.25, and 5.89dB respectively. The performance of the antenna is analyzed by various parameters like Return loss, Gain and VSWR etc. The design of antenna carried out using HFSS 13.0 version.
Key Words: Directivity, Gain, Return loss, Bandwidth 1. INTRODUCTION
Two microstrippatchantennas (MPAs) are presented, one is conventional MPA and another is metamaterial based MPA which is made by introducing three dual isosceles triangular slots on the copper patch of the conventional MPA. Metamaterial properties of the designed and proposed isosceles triangular slotted structure are investigated and proved as metamaterial by using Nicolson Ross Weir (NRW) approach. The proposed slotted structure exhibits double negative (DNG) property of metamaterial and the proposed metamaterial antenna shows improved bandwidth, greater directivity, lower return loss, comparatively more suitable VSWR than the conventional MPA.. Microstrippatchantennas have made a great progress in the recent years. Compared with the conventional antennas, microstrippatchantennas have more advantages and better prospects. A microstrippatch design of a probe- fed antenna is presented for simultaneously Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).The growth of wireless systems and booming demand for a variety of new wirelessapplications such as WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), it is important to design broadband and high gain antennas to cover a wide frequency range. The design of an efficient wide band small size antenna, for recent wirelessapplications, is a major challenge. In applications like high performance aircraft, satellite, missile, mobile radio and wireless communications small size, low-cost fabrication, low profile, conformability and ease of installation and integration with feed networks are the main constraints.
In the past few years, the demand for multi-band antennas has increased as a result of the rapid development of telecommunications systems and wireless devices. Therefore, wireless systems should be expanded [1, 2]. A microstrip monopole antenna is a good candidate for multi-band operations Because it has wide bandwidth impedance, small size, light weight [3-5]. Because wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) technologies are the most widely used in wireless telecommunications devices requires multi-band antenna to fit multiple services in one device. The operating bands for these technologies as assigned by IEEE 802.11 are (WLAN: 2.4–2.484, 5.15–5.35 and 5.725–5.85 GHz) and (WiMAX: 2.5–2.69, 3.4–3.69 and 5.25–5.85 GHz) [1, 3, 6-8]. GSM (900–1800 MHz), CDMA (870– 890 MHz), PCS (1900 MHz), DCS (1710–1880 MHz), WLAN (2.45/5.8 GHz) and LTE-E/LTE-D (2300– 2800 MHz) . The slots are one of the common processes of miniaturization of antennas while enabling multiband operation, which allow shifting of resonant modes towards lower frequencies . Using the famous printed monopole antenna technology, multi-band resonance antennas have been designed . It is necessary to design ultra-wide antennas with band rejection or multiband characteristics and reconfiguration the ability although many systems do not need to work in all frequency bands [2, 7]. Despite the wide frequency ranges of Ultra Wide Band systems, which give many advantages but cause interference with existing wireless communication systems such as (W LAN) operated at 5–6 GHz and C band systems in 3.7– 4.2 GHz [3, 8]. In this study, a small microstrip antenna was introduced for multibandapplications. The proposed structure includes C-shaped and inverted C-shaped as a basic radiating patch above the substrate layer and rectangular ground plane on the beneath of substrate layer. The bandwidth of the provided antenna is 8.96 GHz at VSWR < 2. The presented multiband antenna has great return loss and accepted radiation characteristics.
Wireless communication systems are attracted toward multi-functionality. This multi-functionality provides users with options of connecting to different kinds of wireless services for different purposes at different times. It is very important to develop single radiating element which is having capabilities of performing different functions and multi-band operation in order to minimize the antenna's weight and area. An antenna that have the ability to modify its characteristics, such as operating frequency, polarization or radiation pattern is referred to as a reconfigurable antenna. Reconfigurable antenna is used for to reduce the number of antenna necessary for Multiband function, but they can also be designed to work in complex systems such as emerging applications include software defined radio, cognitive radio, MIMO systems. Re-configurability can be achieved using slot configuration in the microstrip rectangular patch antenna with switching devices are connected inside the slot with ON & OFF State working. Switching devices such as PIN diodes, MEMS switches and optical switches are used for switching purposes.
However, the main limitation of the conventional microstrippatchantennas is narrow bandwidth that restricts its operation where wider bandwidth is required. To overcome their inherent limitation of narrow bandwidth, many techniques have been proposed and investigated such as by using lower value of dielectric substrate, increasing the thickness of substrate , utilizing an impedance matching networks and diﬀerent types of feeding techniques [2–5], use of stacked and coplanar structures , loading of slot and notch [7, 8]. These techniques have some limitations except loading of slot and notch, because it enhances bandwidth without increasing the volume of the geometry. For these reasons, several structures have been reported by the research groups such as E-shaped antenna [9–12], E and H-shaped antennas , C-shaped antenna , notched semi-disk antenna , E-shaped ground penetrating patch antenna , ψ -shaped antenna , V-shaped and half V shaped antennas , W-shaped antenna, etc.  in which they achieved broad bandwidth. These antennas are fabricated on thin microwave substrates having two or more adjacent resonant frequencies which are excited near the fundamental frequencies. These closely excited resonating frequencies are combined to provide enhanced bandwidth. The concept of the proposed antenna structure has been extracted from the above discussed antenna shapes.
Electronics and Communication Engineering, S. M. Institute of Technology, Majhitar, Sikkim, India Abstract: This document represents the design, analysis and perspectives of microstrippatch phased array antenna for the use in advanced communication systems. The antenna facilitates small size, volume, low profile configuration, cost effective and facilitates easy mounting. The antenna with the increasing prospect of high speed link establishment operates at a frequency of 5.2 GHz. The variety of antennas are designed for comparison purposes and also to provide variety for use as per the requirement of communication system. The substrate used is FR4 Epoxy with a dielectric constant of 4.4. The platform used for simulation is Ansoft HFSS. The antenna is microstrip type with edge feed stub. This paper also describes the effects of the different antenna parameters for different antenna types.
and, in addition, a thin substrate with high relative permittivity is desirable for MIC design.
ACP , a stand-alone computer program, developed by Dr Rod B. Waterhouse, implements a full-wave analysis on aperture coupled microstrippatchantennas that are solved using Method of Moments. Ex- perts in the field have employed ACP and the model has successfully been proven to be accurate and offers greater computational efficiency compared with commercially available tools. Currently there are no commercially available CAD tools that combine seamless circuit simulation and electromagnetic sim- ulation. It was therefore decided to integrate ACP into HP-EEsof to utilise the benefits of both software applications. ACP lacks a user-friendly interface and HP-EEsof contains the facility to utilise power- ful analysis tools, automatic artwork generation and simulation with connected microwave components.
Therefore one antenna that has multiband characteristic is more desirable than having one antenna for each frequency band .Microstrip antenna structures are most common option used to realize millimeter wave monolithic integrated circuits for microwave, radar and communication purposes. The shape and operating mode of the patch are selected, designs become very versatile in terms of operating frequency, polarization, pattern and impedance . Using a rectangular slot in the radiating patch increases the upper-edge frequency, and it is possible to control this frequency by adjusting the slot width. By cutting a modified slot of suitable dimensions at the radiating patch a new fed configuration can be constructed .Dielectric material of the substrate ( ε r ) selected for this design is FR-4 Epoxy which has a dielectric constant of 4.4 and loss tangent equal to 0.002. The dielectric constant of the substrate material is an important design parameter. Low dielectric constant is used in the prototype design because it gives better efficiency and higher bandwidth, and lower quality factor Q. The low value of dielectric constant increases the fringing field at the patch periphery and thus increases the radiated power .The effect of very high operating frequency in GHz range which increases chances calculation error in the model. The proposed antenna in this paper can be used for broadcasting, remote sensing, aeronautical radio navigation and mobile satellite applications .Conventional Microstrippatch antenna designs with thick substrate layer causes major problem associated with impedance matching. The proposed antenna is designed on RT Duroid 5880 substrate material which is low density, high weight material for high performance weight sensitive applications. The very low dielectric constant of RT/duroid 5880 laminates is uniform from panel to panel and is constant over a wide frequency range.
Modern era of wireless technology demands wider band, low profile, low cost and multiband antenna having huge military and commercial applications. But the microstrippatch antenna has a problem of narrow bandwidth. So in the enormous change of the technology, the requirement of fractal antenna is increases because of its multiband operation. Thus, Fractals are used to improve the performance of microstrippatch antenna. The definition of fractal geometry is given by B.Mandelbort in 1975 and its meaning is irregular. Clouds, mountains, plant leaves and coastlines are the inspiration for fractal geometries -. It is essential to design antenna as compressed as achievable for some application. Fractal antenna has entered the view of many as a very promising solution. Fractal antenna   is the best suitable radiating structure. In modern technology fractal antenna theory exist as a new area. Fractal geometry has self-similar and space filling property . These pattern no doubt looks complex
2 M.Tech Student Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
1 email@example.com, 2 firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT-—In recent years many studies are concentrated on multiband micro strip antenna structures for important purposes in wireless communication systems, medical imaging, and radar sensor resolution. In this paper, we printed a square radiator patch on FR4 substrate material. The relative dielectric constant was 4.4, and the thickness of the substrate material was 1.6 mm. The patch was fed by a transmission line feeder, and there was a gap between the patch and the ground plane. Antenna design is simulated on electromagnetic (EM) simulation software IE3D and anechoic chamber with a network analyzer was used during the experimental tests.
Abstract: - In recent years many studies are concentrated on multiband micro strip antenna structures for important purposes in wireless communication systems, medical imaging, and radar sensor resolution. In this paper, we printed a circular radiator patch on FR4 substrate material. The relative dielectric constant was 4.4, and the thickness of the material was 1.6 mm. The patch was fed by a transmission line feeder, and there was a gap between the patch and the ground plane. Antenna design is simulated on electromagnetic (EM) simulation software HFSS and anechoic chamber with a network analyzer was used during the experimental tests. The simulated and measured results demonstrated that the proposed antenna achieved a wide impedance bandwidth from 2.0 GHz to 12.0 GHz with a return loss of less than -10 dB. The proposed antenna is easy to integrate with microwave circuitry for low manufacturing cost. The antenna structure is flat, and its design is simple and straight forward.
Key terms: Circular polarization, patch antenna, reactive impedance surface, broadband
Circular polarized microstrippatchantennas were widely used in many applications such as satellite technology, radar systems and global positioning (GPS) systems because they have many advantages such as lightweight, low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna (CPMA) enables the transmission of signal regardless of the direction of the receiving antenna with respect to the transmitting antenna and also has the ability to suppress the interference of multipaths. They do suffer from narrow impedance and axialratio(AR) bandwidths, however, usually mostly 5% or less for impedance and 3 dB for AR values. Circularly polarized radiation is generated by exciting two orthogonal modes of the same amplitude. Using thick structures, square slot methods, defective ground structures, bandwidth enhancement can be accomplished. The structure of the microstrippatch antenna where only one patch is fed and other patches are parasitically coupled. By using a small gap between them, the connection between the parasite patch and the resonating patch is understood. Two parasitic patches of the same width are placed along both sides of the fed patch with small gap between them. By adding parasitic patch along the fed patch, bandwidth increases as well as an antenna gain. This also increased the size of the antenna.
In this article a novel design of triple band microstrip shirt-shape patch antenna has been presented in which the main radiating structure is mounted on FR-4 substrate having dielectric permittivity εr=4.3.Two L-shape slots are etched in the rectangular patch which increases the inductance of the patch, resultantly increasing the electrical length of the antenna which produces multi- band characteristic. So the intent behind this work is to produce a new shirt shape design for the patch antenna having the capabilities of covering multi bands of wireless and radar applications. The proposed shirt shape microstrippatch antenna in this work provides multiband characteristics with small size and wide bandwidth (VSWR < 2). The operating frequencies find its application in C and X Bands.
2 PG Scholar, V V College of Engineering,Tisaiyanvilai, Tamilnadu
Abstract: During the last few years wireless technology has gained so much importance and widely developed in image, speech and data transfer. This communication purpose need antenna to cover all the possible frequency bands. This paper presents the design of single band microstrippatch antenna with band pass filter. Here the filter is used to allow the required frequency and to remove the noise. The presented works includes the design of an antenna sandwiched with FR4 substrate of thickness 1.6mm and dielectric constant 4.4. The proximity coupling is used because of larger bandwidth and has low spurious radiation. The antenna is simulated to cover Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) channels (15 GHz). The antenna parameters are discussed and simulated using CST (Computer Simulation Technology) Studio Suite. This paper presents a low-cost printed circuit board (PCB)-based single-band antenna for future wireless local area network (WLAN) applications.
Keywords: DGS, Ring type slots, Rectangular microstrippatch antenna, S-Parameters, smith chart, radiation pattern, bandwidth, VSWR, resonant frequency, HFSS13.0.
MicrostripPatchAntennas has quite a lot of advantages over other antennas due to their light weight, low profile, low cost of production, and are easily well-suited with optoelectronic integrated circuits (OBICs) and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). Due to these striking features, the researchers are having noteworthy attention towards microstripantennas. Microstrippatchantennas are used in extensive range of applications such as in wireless communication and biomedical diagnosis. There are many feeding techniques used for the Microstrippatchantennas. To keep the structure planar, a microstrip line in the plane of the patch can be etched to feed the antenna. But again, it suffers from the drawbacks that the feed network interferes with the radiating properties of the antenna leading to undesired radiations. For the microstrip feed, an increase in the substrate thickness increases its width, which in turn increases the undesired feed radiations.