Using such quantitative data alongside the data available in each school regarding internal assessments of age-related attainment, the project has had a positive impact upon pupils and their learning. One school described a 100% agreement amongst pupils that the new feedback policy was a better way of working. Although some pupils found self-assessment initially challenging, as time progressed and the pupils became more familiar with what was expected of them, satisfaction rates amongst pupils increased. It was also reported that this was particularly true amongst pupils with additional needs. Another school wrote: “Children could clearly see whether they had understood and achieved. They hadn’t been reading wordy comments and were not always wanting to feedback to teacher’s comments. The children’s reactions to the new marking system were the greatest gain. They liked instant feedback. They looked immediately for the yellow highlighting. They were far more involved in their own assessment and wanted to fix any misunderstandings and errors quickly.”
Whilst the personal time savings associated with shared planning are often considerable in situations where a teacher devises one lesson themselves and receives several from their colleagues, a key finding of the Whitley Bay High study was that the early stages of the planning initiatives were time consuming. Even preparatory tasks such as background reading were onerous. On an individual level, many of the teachers were planning for new courses so they needed time to acquaint themselves with material that was unfamiliar to them. In addition, the groups tended to take a prolonged period to reach agreement on the fundamentals outlined in (3) above. Subsequently, where teachers were writing for colleagues who taught sets of different abilities, the provision of heavily differentiated material was especially demanding in terms of time. The problem of “overwriting” for the benefit of non- subject specialists has already been mentioned. Many staff felt the major time benefits delivered by shared planning would be most likely felt in around two years’ time. For their part, the school’s senior leaders were unequivocal in their belief that the initial investment of time would ultimately prove to be well spent and once the initial burst of planning activity was complete and curricula became more stable in the ensuing years, they expected the amount of time required for shared planning to fall very significantly.
In addition to the three approaches described above, one school from the Candleby Lane TSA aimed to reduce marking workload through using a combination of verbal feedback, coloured pens and stamps (as marking symbols), and pupil-self- and peer- assessment. They entitled this approach Visible learning in action. Teachers in the Foundation Stage and Year 1 increased the use of verbal feedback and minimised the use of stamps and coloured pens. Teachers in Years 2- 4 used ticks, coloured pens and stamps to replace extensive written feedback, and made minimal written comments relating to ‘next steps’, and where work was exceptionally well done, or where there were errors; and teachers in Years 5-6 increased the use of pupil self-assessment and peer marking. Findings from initial and end of projectteacher surveys, teacherresearch journals and focus groups, and pupil interviews indicated similar findings to those outlined in each of three
Within the research data, there were variations in formal assessment practice across the participant schools, but termly and end - of - year formal assessments in Literacy and Maths were common to all. These would take the format, generally, of ‘levelling’ the student in various ways, such as, for example, using target trackers where teachers “go along ticking off the objectives (achieved/not achieved).” In some schools, these were also done at the end of every half term giving, typically, levels/bands, such as with the labels ‘secure’ or ‘developing’. Universally, the “top level analysis” of this emergent data was undertaken by the school leaders. A common format would be for the data to be put into tables to check individual student progress, but also to make comparisons between groups. The teachers were then usually given statistical information on how particular groups were progressing, but sometimes it could be as generic and vague as “boys not doing very well”.
collaborative thematic analytical process – however it did increase cost. Interviewees were required to give up around 30 minutes of their time – though response rate suggests that they were happy to do so. Frank and considered responses may have been encouraged because the interviewers were fellow teachers from a school not directly linked to the interviewee’s. Developing the interview schedule, conducting the interviews and reviewing transcripts all placed considerable demands upon a small group of staff interested in carrying out research.
• Allocating time – we expected an impact on the quality of planning as initial teacher surveys and interviews reported that the usual 10% allocation of PPA time was often rushed, taken up with other jobs and that teachers lacked the time and space to be as creative as possible and to support children’s engagement in their learning. 1.2.4. How did you investigate the effectiveness of each approach? The research surveys and focus group questionnaires were designed with measuring the impact of each of these approaches in mind. At the end of each planning session, all attendees were required to complete a survey using an online survey platform. The survey was designed to incorporate questions regarding the effectiveness of SLEs as facilitators, the impact of working with other colleagues to plan, and the impact of the discrete and distinct allocation of time to plan with colleagues.
• Evidence drawn from within our schools was complemented by evidence gained from literature and from the expertise and practice of other schools.1 An example of literature that helped to inform our approach was Griffith and Burns (2014) Outstanding Teaching: Teaching Backwards. A particularly pertinent influence from the work of other schools was gained through engagement with Foxfields School and Woodhill School in Woolwich, members of the Inspire Partnership. School visits and collaborative practice resulted in changes in the planning of the art curriculum in the Mead schools. This, in turn, formed the basis of this project where equivalent planning approaches for science, DT and computing were being explored
In this study, the cut-off points were selected using the decisions on the validation set to achieve the desired performance. Although this allows the measurement of the maximum possible gain using a given approach in an evaluation setting, in practice (e.g. when updating a review), the true scores would not be available. The problem of choosing a cut-off threshold, equivalent to deciding when to stop when using a model for prioritis- ing relevant documents, remains an open research ques- tion in information retrieval. Various approaches have been tested , but they do not guarantee achieving a desired sensitivity level. Our preferred approach is to use the threshold identified in a validation set and to apply it to the remaining ‘unknown’ records. ML-based ap- proaches can also be used without a cut-off where all documents are screened manually, but those most likely to be included are screened first to optimise workflows thus reducing the workload . In a similar broad pre- clinical researchproject in neuropathic pain, it took 18 person-months to screen 33,814 unique records. From that, we estimate it would take 40 person-months to screen all the records identified in this search, and that this would be reduced by around 29 months by the ap- proach described here.
This was followed by a face to face session with Pat McGovern who introduced the NQTs to early concepts around leadership, and the qualities of leadership such as self awareness and efficacy. The mentors also participated which allowed both NQTs and mentors to share an understanding of this initial approach. Together they explored ideas about what they admired about what makes an effective leader and how all teachers are leaders. Anecdotally, it was interesting to hear the NQTs discuss their fears around being ‘told off’ and they were encouraged to see that they themselves were in control of many decisions e.g. around working late and having a workload balance. We then asked the mentors to include an element of the leadership aspect within their mentoring sessions which were held fortnightly. Mentors were encouraged to talk to their NQTs about self-management and future career roles when they felt that this was appropriate.
The project involved four primary schools across Southwark Teaching School Alliance. Nine schools (seven primaries and two secondaries) were initially recruited and attended the launch and training day. However, two primaries dropped out before the intervention began, both due to external factors associated with the timing of the project. A further school dropped out during the intervention; anecdotal evidence from Southwark TSA suggests that their lack of engagement was related to the administrative burden of participating in a study (e.g. returning data 4 ) and an absence of ‘buy-in’ which came
A good assessment policy is clear on how the assessment outcomes will be used. The policy should outline when it is necessary to record assessment data and when the purposes of assessment do not require data to be collected. The policy should be careful to avoid any unnecessary addition to teacherworkload. (p.26) The research group agreed, in the light of this, that there was no need for staff to assess against every national curriculum objective. We wanted to identify the key objectives from each year group for staff to use to assess their pupils. This approach was intended to offer more clarity and focus about what teachers needed to assess. We also agreed that we wanted each KPI to have an expected descriptor and also a ‘depth’ descriptor. The 2014 National Curriculum calls for depth as well as breadth in the primary curriculum but our survey showed that teachers were uncertain about what depth looked like and that this was increasing their workload.
Maths. Codes identified what had been achieved and how independently pupils had worked, no written comments were used. During the project, the school made further changes - becoming flexible about when marking conferences were held and using some whole class or 1:1 conferences where these better meet diverse pupils’ learning needs. All the teachers new to conference marking reported that 1:1 marking conferences were most effective and resulted in good progress in children’s work, but finding the time for this was viewed as “incredibly difficult”. They found the whole class model enabled all marking to be completed within one lesson, but teachers could not be specific enough for individual children. Views on small group marking conferences were mixed; they met more specific needs than whole group conferences, but some children lacked the ability to work independently when teachers did this. The school with previous experience of conference marking found their new practice was much quicker and children engaged well with the process and made good progress. All of these teachers stated that their marking workload had significantly decreased. Teacher reflections included:
Committed teachers are teachers who are loyal, aware, and responsible for carrying out the learning process. Commitment defined attachment, loyalty or identification (Singh & Gupta, 2015). Organizational commitment is the strength of a person towards self identification and its exposure to a particular organization. Professional commitment is defined as psychological attachment and identification of a person to his profession. (Singh & Gupta, 2015). Organizational commitment and the people within it are impacted by leadership style. In high-level education effective leadership and teacher commitment is needed to see its influence (Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016). Second hipotesis will test about this statement. Leadership style has positive effect on commitment (H1a)
wonder as a sense of inquiry into their practice). The paper’s central argument is that whilst a national policy drive has necessitated a change in research culture within initial teacher education, reasons for involvement go beyond a feeling of ‘because we have to’. The participants regarded involvement as key to their professional growth. Time and opportunity to research pedagogical practices in other teacher’s classes opened up space for the participants to ‘wonder’ about their own practices. They also felt that the experience supported a shift towards adopting the identity of ‘researcher’. The paper considers why this is so important in the current climate of educational change in Wales.
ongoing operations as projects in order to apply project management to them. Project management is a way of structuring the questions that can be asked in a project. It indicates when and what questionnaire must be answered and what data there are needed in order to take the next step. Often, a project is regarded as a desired goal, which can be realized with the available means. In this sense we try to increase our chances and minimize the risks (2).
Our lesson observations revealed that in classes run by effective teachers, pupils are clear about what they are doing and why they are doing it. They can see the links with their earlier learning and have some ideas about how it could be developed further. The pupils want to know more. They understand what is good about their work and how it can be improved. They feel secure in an interesting and challenging learning environment. And they support one another and know when and where to go for help. The research shows the criticality of the teacher in the pupil learning process. The effective teachers whom we observed and studied were very actively involved with their pupils at all times. Many of the activities were teacher-led. They created maximum opportunities to learn and no time was wasted. The environment was very purposeful and businesslike. But at the same time there was always a great deal of interaction between teacher and pupils.
advancement and strive to perform despite being burdened with administrative tasks. This is especially critical since career advancement rubric prioritize research performance over teaching. This research validates the contention that workload (input) should translate into research performance (output). This indicates that academics who have higher workload publish more and has more research grants. It also substantiates previous studies by Kenny (2017); Teater and Mendoza (2018). However, this finding should be treated with caution. It is believed that the workload-linkage relationship very similar to Yerkes–Dodson law on a stress-performance relationship. Reasonable workload (as in stress) is imperative to boost performance but excessive amount of workload would impair performance and has other undesirable side effects such as burnout and depression. As evident from the descriptive mean, the mean of workload per semester across all academic ranks was 51.7 hours per semester which was considered slightly above 40 hours. These findings are important for several reasons. First, it provides additional support for the increasing workload among academics. Secondly, it validates the current workload calculation of workload used by the university. It indicates that the workload weightage calculation is a valid measure of academic activities. Thirdly, this study lays a foundation for subsequent studies to validate the performance appraisal rubrics. This study enables the university management to ascertain objectives measure of individual performance and how it could be linked with the organizational KPIs particularly in the context of research performance. However, this study is not without limitations. Perhaps the most important limitation is the type of secondary data used
As stated above, the nature of action research does not invite, and indeed does not allow for, generalization of results and conclusions (Cohen et al., 2000). Thus, the present study cannot be regarded as a basis for recommending the use of CSCL. However, it offers several suggestions that lecturers at pre-service teacher education colleges may wish to consider. First, teacher educators must always remember that they serve as role models for their students, with intention or without. In this context, keeping up-to-date with technology and at the same time maintaining beliefs (such as the value of cooperative learning) set a good example to students for coping with the complexities of teaching. Second, the examination of both beliefs and practices is of utmost importance, and should continue throughout one's entire teaching career. Teachers (as well as teacher educators) need to engage in lifelong learning, which can take many forms (such as action research); the choice is immaterial as long as it improves teaching practice. Finally, the data collected in the present study show that, whichever choices are made, there is no single perfect tool or activity. There will always be students whose learning style, personal beliefs, or preferences will not be satisfied, and such students must also be taken into account at the course planning stage. It is the author's hope that other lecturers will find this account useful and informative for using CSCL, and, more generally, will see it as a recommendation for adopting action research to examine their own work, in an attempt to constantly improve it, whichever direction they may follow.
The aesthetics of the resources were also considered carefully. The teacher resources were designed so they were uncluttered and easy to follow. Colour was used but is not integral to the design, so that printing the resource in black and white would not cause problems. The student worksheets do not generally contain spaces for students to write their answers for two reasons: the first is that the students are likely to be in Year 11 or above and should no longer need the comfort of writing on question sheets; secondly, the resources are more likely to be used again if the teacher can collect clean worksheets at the end of the lesson. The teacher resources were designed so there was plenty of white space in which the teachers could make notes or add comments.
Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to find out the characteristics of inspiring teachers who inspired teacher candidates to do teaching profession properly. In the study, “An Exploratory Sequential Design” a mixed method where qualitative and quantitative approaches are used concomitantly, was employed to determine the inspiring teacher characteristics. In this design, the researcher respectively followed two steps. In the first step grounded theory research design as a qualitative research design was used and in the second step survey research model as a quantitative research design was used. Inspiring Teacher Scale (ITS) was developed by the researchers to collect the data. In the second phase, the study group was extended to continue the quantitative studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used first to analyze the data. The results of analysis have demonstrated that the items loaded on four factors, which reflect inspiring teacher characteristics as “teacher communication”, “personal characteristics”, “professional development” and “supporting students in different ways”. Findings suggest that ITS, which has four-factor structures with 36 items, can be suggested as a valid and reliable instrument to determine the characteristics of inspiring teacher. Therefore, in this study the characteristics inspiring teachers were specified according to opinions of teacher candidates and presented to be o model for teacher candidates.