These three pillars of problem-basedlearning: student questioning, interdisciplinary method and team work has influenced the development and implementation of problem- basedlearning in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). This method is in line with the philosophy of education of this university that states that “The education and training in this university is a continuous effort to lead in market oriented academic programmes which are student-focused through experiential learning to produce well trained human resource and professionals who are catalysts for a sustainable development”. This education method is hope can improve the teaching standard and most importantly produce graduates who are competent not only in the core discipline or subject matter of expertise but the generic skill (GS) that is greatly lacking among the students .
developed at McMaster University, students are first presented with the patient’s problem. Next, the learners engaged in several processes, like hypothesis generation, data gathering, data analysis and decision-making, while synthesizing basic science and clinical information, in an effort to offer some potential diagnoses and courses of treatment for the patient’s problem . In PBL, instead of a lecturer, we have an expert tutor or facilitator to guide the problem-solving process. All methodologies regarding real problems stand in contrast to a more traditional approach to learning and instruction. They promote learner- centered, small group, interactive learning experiences, instead of large group, didactic, teacher-centered instruction. As such, students are free to pursue determined learning issues, both collectively and individually, in contrast to students in more traditional curricula who might focus on identifying what material the professor will include on the exam . Finally, the assessments in PBL typically include performance-based and self-reflective assessments, while traditional approaches to instruction often emphasize multiple choices, objective tests . With these models of instruction, it is expected that students readily re-organize and apply knowledge in response to various situational demands. To attain this flexibility, students must understand the problems in their full complexity and reorganize them, several times, to observe how shifts in variables and goals alter the outcomes. How well one can perform at this level, is a function of both the way knowledge is represented and the processes that operate on those mental representations. This perspective can be supported in Cognitive Flexibility and Social Constructivism learning approaches.
Research by Okoye (2010) Ogwu (2007), Ogwo and Oranu (2006) separately reported that no single teaching method can be said to be the most appropriate in teaching technical and vocational subjects. Petrina (2004) also has the opinion that, goals cannot be achieved by a single teaching method, nor can anyone teaching method accommodate all learning styles at once; for example, demonstrations or projects are suitable for meeting some goals but not effective for meeting others. However, in technical vocational education and training (TVET), most instruction is work-oriented (Nwachukwu, 2006). For this to be achieved, learners must be exposed to active teaching approaches such as problem-basedlearning (PBL). The participation of learners in instruction in any technical and vocational trades must be active and direct. Direct participation exists where the learner is physically involved in the academic and practical activities in that trade. The learner must be particularly affected and exhibit positive perceptions and behaviours that indicate the attainment of the desired goals.
In this study, the students supported by the creative drama became themselves aware of the problem, revived the scenarios themselves without any intervention and tried to find solutions to the problem. In short, they learned to learn in this process. According to Bandura  self-efficacy is the individual's own judgment on the capacity of an individual to organize the necessary activities in order to be able to do a certain job. In this study, the creative drama-assisted PBLapproach allowed students to make their own organization and contributed to the development of self-efficacy belief. Also, according to Yaman and Yalçın  in PBLapproach, it is expected that the student will be able to answer the questions about what he / she knows about a problem and if he knows what he knows, he / she will be able to answer these questions of the other fields. Therefore, the process of learning to learn together with the student's inner motivation will take action and the self-efficacy belief will be expected to develop. In this study, the self-efficacy beliefs of the students who act in line with their own plans have developed. In addition, the student-centered approaches are applied together with the constructivism, and different teaching methods are used in courses. Thus, the increase in the control group post-test mean is normal. There was no significant increase in the control group in terms of the use of the other two sub-dimensions of the geometry knowledge and the final test for negative self-efficacy. There was no significant difference between the pre-test mean scores of the self-efficacy belief of the experimental and the control groups. Therefore, it is understood that the groups are equivalent to each other before the experimental procedure.
It is a teaching technique used in many medical schools to facilitate learning basic science concepts in the context of clinical cases. Students are assigned to groups of 810, and each group is assigned a faculty member who plays the role of a tutor or facilitator as the students work through a case or a problem. This model is very studentcentered. In the PBLapproach, complex, realworld problems are used to motivate students to identify and research the concepts and principles they need to know to work through those problems. Students work in small learning teams, bringing together collective skills at acquiring, communicating, and integrated information. In PBL curriculum the problem scenarios serve as central component, a set of problem situations that equip students to become independent inquirers, who see learning and epistemology as flexible entities and perceive that there are also other valid ways of seeing things besides their own perspective. PBL instruction addresses several desirable outcomes of an undergraduate education, particularly critical thinking, research skills, communication skills, and other lifelong learning skills. PBL strategy is remarkably a datable vehicle to develop in students, core knowledge in a content area, cognitive skills (analysis, synthesis, application, evaluation, and critique) and action skills (organizing time, resources, coordination, negotiating, tolerating). In PBL, students first encounter a problem, followed by a studentcentered inquiry process (Norman and Schmidt, 2000;
then revised again in accordance with the shortcomings encountered in the classroom test so that it becomes a feasible product to use in the second basic physics lecture. Based on the results of research analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that physicslearning results usingPBL model treated with assessment is higher than the results of learningphysicsusingPBL model treated without assessment. The learning process must be improved through applying the assessment process as an integral part of the learning process in accordance with the characteristics of learners. Learning with PBLapproach does not merely give attention to the acquisition of declarative knowledge, but also the acquisition of procedural knowledge, therefore the assessment is not just enough with the test. Assessment and evaluation in accordance with the PBL model is to assess the work produced by students as a result of their work and to discuss the results of the work together.
Problem-BasedLearning (PBL) is an educational strategy where learning is driven by a problem and students work in teams to learn more about the problem, conduct a research, communicate to each other, apply many essential skills and enjoy the fruits of active learning. The lecturer or teacher is not the one who controls the learning process. Instead, he or she plays the role of a facilitator and motivator to guide the students along the learning path (Savin-Baden & Major, 2004, Savin-Baden, 2003). PBL has proven to be a successful educational strategy in many different study domains all over the world and it was used as a strategy for development in the globalized higher education (Kolmos & Graaff, 2007, Du, Graaff & Kolmos, 2009). Because of its popularity, PBL has been accepted as one of the most powerful student-centeredlearning approaches that enable many institutions to make a significant change in teaching and learningapproach. Some institutions have been successfully adopted PBL and their faculty members and students have enjoyed the benefits from the adoption.
As defined earlier PBL is a studentcenteredapproach in which students learn about a subject by working in groups to solve an open ended problem. Group learn- ing facilitates not only the acquisition of knowledge, but also several other desirable attributes such as communi- cation skills, teamwork, problem solving, independent responsibility for learning, sharing information, and respect for others. PBL can therefore be thought of as a small group teaching method that combines the acqui- sition of knowledge with the development of generic skills and attitudes. 25,45
In February 2010, there was a forum about the challenges and future of nursing education by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Teaching methods that may have the greatest impact on learning outcomes were discussed(IOM, 2010). This forum outlined many recommendations about the future of nursing education. The main goal of these recommendations was to improve the link between theory and practice. For instance, Recommendation 6 spoke to ensuring that nurses engage in lifelong learning. The PBL teaching method has been shown to improve nursing students' self- directed learning skills. Thus, graduated nurses will be responsible for updating their own professional and personal knowledge. In a Carnegie National Nursing Education Study, Benner and colleagues discovered that many current educational practices do not promote critical thinking and clinical judgment (Benner, 2010). Benner (2010) called for radical curriculum reform in nursing education through student-centered teaching and learning approaches as the way to prepare graduate nurses. Benner (2010) stated that “The educators in nursing science need to improve the teaching methods to ensure that all graduates are safe and effective clinicians, as well as lifelong learners who develop clinical knowledge” (p13).
Problem-basedlearning has gained great popularity among the world's top educational institutions since it is contributed to the development of students' professional skills. This article aimed to study the application of problem-basedlearning in pharmaceutical education and conduct a comparative analysis of its advantages as perceived by university students of the first and last years. In 2018, the authors conducted a study using mixed methods of a sociological survey (focus group discussions and anonymous questioning) among 423 students. As a result, they revealed the main advantages of problem-basedlearning associated with the use of real-life situations, which ensured the reliability of the material under the study, contributed to a better understanding of the topic and enabled the application of the knowledge acquired before. The authors also proved that students of the first and last years perceived the above- mentioned benefits in a different way. The study results can help to realize new educational approaches based on the student's needs. Keywords: problem-basedlearning, pharmaceutical education, active teaching methods, educational technologies, student-centeredapproach
Abstract Focus of current Malaysia Education Blueprint (2013–2025) is on SCL. The blueprint can serve as a good reference material but implementing SCL is largely on the shoulders of the school administrators and senior teachers involved in decision making. This paper aims to unravel the readiness of a Malaysian secondary school to implement and adopt SCL. The findings were subsequently used to provide insight on the development of a problem-basedlearning (PBL) module for a secondary science curriculum. This paper concerns a case study research which was conducted in a national type secondary school. The sample involved in this study was school administrators and senior science teachers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were carried out to gain detailed information on the school’s readiness to implement SCL. Interviews were transcribed and cross-case comparisons were made to compare and contrast the participants’ responses before themes across the interviews data were generated. Three main themes were derived from the analysis, namely (i) knowledge and awareness on SCL, (ii) optimism towards SCL, and (iii) challenges and misinterpretation on SCL. This information provides insights into developing a PBL module specific for Malaysian science curriculum that contains the elements of PBL scenario, facilitations, training, PBL guide and support. Significance: This paper proposes insights for PBL module development that derived from empirical research findings. Therefore, the insights are well grounded and reflective of the current practice of SCL in school which in turn translate into it is effectiveness and feasibility.
appropriate technology. The module was later implemented with 120 students in urban schools in the Klang Valley (Norlidah Alias & Saedah Siraj, 2012) with 30 participants of each learningstyle (visual/verbal, active/reflective). The results of the study suggested that the module is effective for visual, active, reflective but not for verbal learners. The researchers also compared the module effectiveness according to gender. The verbal and reflective modules were effective for female learners but not male learners. The module was later extended to other science subjects such as Biology and Chemistry and further implemented in a rural school in Negeri Sembilan. This article will focus on the effectiveness for improving students’ achievement and the usability of the implemented Biology PTechLS module in a Felda Learning Centre in Jempol District in Negeri Sembilan. The PTechLS module was implemented for two years from 2012 to 2014. In addition, usability evaluation involving user retrospective was conducted with two Biology teachers who were involved in implementing the PTechLS module.
Education, and Sustainable Development Goals are intended for the purpose of learning and innovation skills. The researchers’ objective is to improve the quality of learning by applying the literacy movement, character values as a provision for life and career skills using the PBLmethod in the gasoline engine curriculum. The research method is classroom action research with the Elliot action model carried out in two cycles. A total of 34 students with ages ± 19-22 were used as research samples. The results obtained during the study showed an increase, namely: (a) the literacy movement was observed as successfully implemented with an increase of 19.1%; (b) inducing character values improves student behavior by 14.8%, and (c) strengthening competency in the gasoline motorbike curriculum by 11.3%. Problems in the engineering field that are packaged in PBL classes through student literacy and character movements are some forms of learning innovation that need to be applied to similar competencies.
The development of professional competency for the PBLstudent is likely the result of the iterative, peer reviewed formative assessments upon which PBL is based (Albanese & Mitchell, 1993; Gijbels, et al., 2005; Mandeville & Stoner, 2015; Vernon & Blake, 1993). Prince and Felder (2006) define learning as occurring when new information has been integrated into one’s existing cognitive and personal belief structures. Vygotsky’s (1962) social constructivism theory suggests that personal meaning is co-constructed from an experiential event involving dialog and interaction with others (Vygotsky, 1962). Nanoka & Takeuchi (1996) posited that knowledge creation occurs when tacit knowledge is converted to explicit knowledge, using both written and oral communication. To facilitate this conversion process, the context for interaction among individuals across time is required. The theoretical framework of social constructivism suggests that to have an effective learning experience, peer collaboration must be optimized in the classroom. The collaborative learning environment of PBL is theorized to promote knowledge creation by inducing students to co-construct knowledge within the dialog of small groups in which prior beliefs and misconceptions are modified in light of new information (Prince & Felder, 2006). In addition, the availability of peer-review within the collaborative PBL model serves as a formative assessment that fosters growth in professional competence by providing low risk feedback to iteratively expand a student’s zone of proximal development (Epstein & Hundert, 2002; Powell & Kalina, 2009).
The development model used is the Plomp model which consists of three phases, namely the initial investigation phase (preliminary research), the development phase or prototype creation (development or prototyping phase), and the assessment phase. In the initial investigation phase (preliminary research) the researcher conducted three activities, namely needs analysis, student analysis, curriculum analysis, and concept analysis. After all the activities have been completed, continued in the development phase or prototype making (development or prototyping phase), the activities carried out in this phase are the creation or development of learning devices that will be piloted and revised in their own evaluation and expert review. The results obtained in this phase continued in the assessment phase of the activity carried out to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the learning tools that had been developed.
The postgraduates of the PBL group revealed a high overall satisfaction with the course. Postgraduates said that the PBL teaching model can effectively train postgraduate clinical thinking, cultivate the abilities of deconstructing problems, comprehensive analysis, literature retrieval, language expression, exploration innovation; and overall improve the teaching qual- ity of EBM. Some student said that: “I learned where to search various sources of information and how to participate in a group”, “self-confidence, shared infor- mation, different opinions” and “My developing on this module will help me study my other modules next semester”. at the same time, Postgraduates of LBL group said that LBL places students in a passive rather than an active role, which hinders learning and requires the instructor to have or to learn effective writing and speaking skills.
students working on a task, and is responsible to the-old lecturer what has been learned, worked, generally fulfillment in the form of FAQ, discussion or a writing test. Based on the above explanation can be concluded that the approach of learning conventional observations this is learningapproach combining metode talks, FAQ, and the granting of a task in the process of learning in class. This conventional approach had the characteristics of among other things: Based on the above explanation can be deduced that the conventional approach in the review of this is learningapproach combining metode talks, FAQ, and the granting of a task in the process of studying in class.. This conventional approach had characteristics among others: a) Lecturer considers the ability of the students of the same, b) Use the class as the only place to learn, c) teach more speaking engagements, d) Separation of subjects is apparent. e) provide activies that do not variation, f) one-way comunication, g) learning emphasizes the achievement of the effect of interaksional based on the orientation of the Group, h) Teaching using only the books and the information only from the lecturer, i) only assess the results of the study. The advantages of conventional learning approaches as follows: a) save time and costs, b) Students can organize better questions and free up the subject matter taught, c) students who have the ability to understand the material more quickly can help her friend who was slow, so there is no need to find a concept independently, d) Teacher easier understand the ability of college students and its characteristics. The conventional approach to learning is a weakness: a) student experience depends greatly on the knowledge and experience of lecturers, b) lectures active to transfer knowledge, student only receive from lectures, c)the spread of intrusional does not allow students to learn actively, let alone experienced a process of profound truth level assessment.
Diamanto Filippatou and Stavroula Kaldi (2010) have stated that there was an increase in willingness to work in groups for children with special needs or disabilities as well as an increase in what they retained about the topic. To get to this level it has proven that a student has to have basic skills mastered or the ability to reach the academic level of learning for that topic, letting the student to be able to keep up with their peers. This can be accomplished by having assistance provided to the student at the time while the pupil is working in the group. This eliminates the issues of falling behind or not being understood by the peers, teaching them how to work together to accomplish the task at hand (Filippatou & Kaldi, 2010). Diamanto Filippatou and Stavroula Kaldi (2010) “concluded that students with learning difficulties can benefit through PBL in academic performance,
Afterwards, the third aspect was syntactical language. Criteria in this aspect deals with writer’s competence in control of the syntax of English sentences, namely clause pattern, agreement, verb form, prepositions, articles, plurals, and punctuation (Knapp &Watkins, 2005). The first criterion, clause pattern, focuses the essential elements of a clause, which were a subject and finite verb. The second criterion was agreement. This focused on whether the use of either auxiliaries or verb agreed with the subject. The third criterion was verb form. This focuses on whether the use of verb from agrees with the tense. The next criterion was preposition. It pointed out whether the prepositions used were appropriate and correct. Afterward, the following criterion was articles. The use of correct articles was a must. The subsequent criterion was plurals. This related with the agreement of plurals used, e.g. each student, both of the student, some students, etc. The last criterion was punctuation. Punctuation should be put correctly.
Learningbased on issues believed to be menumbuhkembangkan the ability of creativity of students, either individually or in groups because almost every step demands active students. According to Savin Agency and Mayor (2004:8) of learningbased on the problem is a learningapproach that is affected by the environment and pedagogies which he developed. But the success of a learning model based on the issue depends on the availability of learning resources for students, the tools to test answers or guesses. Equipment demands practical, requires sufficient time much less data has to be retrieved from the field, as well as the ability of a teacher in lifting and formulating the problem.