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Performance and Comparative Evaluation of Ad hoc Routing Protocols for IEEE 802 11ad Network Using QualNet

Performance and Comparative Evaluation of Ad hoc Routing Protocols for IEEE 802 11ad Network Using QualNet

This work presents a performance and comparative evaluation of reactive, proactive and hybrid routing protocols like AODV, DYMO, FSR and ZRP in 802.11ad network based on their standard performance evaluation parameters. From the simulated result charts shown in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 we come into conclusion that the better throughput in the network can be achieved using DYMO, Total number of packets (messages) received is more at the server of the network by using FSR, Total data received at server is comparatively highest by using ZRP, The network average end to end delay is found to be less in FSR when compared to other routing protocols and the lowest average jitter in the network can be achieved by using ZRP.
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Analyzing the Performance of AntHocNet Protocol for MANETs

Analyzing the Performance of AntHocNet Protocol for MANETs

Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links without a common infrastructure. They move randomly and unpredictably thus making the topology very dynamic in nature. This paper discusses the implementation and performance analysis of the AntHocNet algorithm which is based on the nature-inspired Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) framework for routing in mobile ad hoc networks. In this work we have implemented and tested the performance of the AntHocNet algorithm for routing in mobile ad hoc networks. AntHocNet is an adaptive hybrid algorithm, which combines reactive path setup with proactive path probing, maintenance and improvement. Using an extensive set of simulation experiments in QualNet, we have compared the performance of AntHocNet algorithm with traditional AODV routing algorithm. It is observed that the bio-inspired algorithm has outperformed AODV on different evaluation criteria such as average end to end delay, throughput, average jitter, packet delivery ratio, queuing delay and convergence time while changing parameters like node density, pause time, terrain size and Random-Waypoint max-speed.
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Design and Performance of QOSRGA Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks

Design and Performance of QOSRGA Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks

2.2 Average End to End Packet Delay The average end-to-end delay includes all possible delays from the moment the packet is generated to the moment it is received by the destination nodes. Generally, there are three factors affecting end-to-end delay of a packet as (i) routes discovery time, which causes packets to wait in the queue before a route is found; (ii) buffering waiting time, which causes packets to wait in the queue before they can be transmitted; (iii) the length of routing path. More hops means longer time it takes to reach its destination node. Fig. 6 depicts the variation of the average end-to-end delay as a function of maximum velocity of nodes. It can be seen that the general trend of all curves is an increase in delay with the increase of velocity of nodes. The reason is mainly that high mobility of nodes results in an increased probability of link failure that causes an increase in the number of routing rediscovery processes. This makes data packets have to wait for more time in its queue until a new routing path is found. The delay of BE-DSR is better than QOSRGA for 98 packets/sec source data. When the source sent 4 packet/sec BE-DSR is better than QOSRGA. When the velocity is more than 5 m/s, the delay in all protocols is maintained at almost the same level. As result, QOSRGA performed badly. This is obvious since, QOSRGA was designed to collect as much information about the network as possible, so that the process of route selection using GA is done based on these imprecise information. But all the delays incurred by QOSRGA are still less than 0.1s which is the delay bound for multimedia signals. This is
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A Survey on Effective Improvement in Network Congestion Dominance Routing Protocol in MANET

A Survey on Effective Improvement in Network Congestion Dominance Routing Protocol in MANET

In the mobile adhoc network (MANET), congestion can occur in any intermediate node, often because of limitation in resources, when data packets are being transmitted from source to destination. Congestion will result to long delay, high packet loss and waste of resource utilization time. The main goal of congestion control is to reduce the delay and buffer overflow caused by network congestion and hence enable the network to perform better. The aim of this paper, is to determine the performance measures like throughput packet delivery ratio, Average end-to-end delay and Routing overhead of MANET’s Routing-PSR, AODV, DSDV, OLSR and ZRP with varying scalability and offered load under different mobility models.
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Geographic Multiattribute Monarch Butterfly Optimization Based Traffic Aware Routing In VANET

Geographic Multiattribute Monarch Butterfly Optimization Based Traffic Aware Routing In VANET

Fig. 7. shows the effects of the throughput with a number of vehicle nodes. As illustrated in the above Figure, the GMMBOTAR technique achieves higher throughput as compared to and VACO respectively. The optimization technique computes the fitness of all the vehicle nodes to find the best neighboring node and find the optimal route path to successfully deliver the data packets in a dynamic environment. This helps for GMMBOTAR technique to effectively deliver the data packets at the destination node without any loss as compared to other conventional routing techniques. The above results and discussion with different parametric results confirm that the proposed GMMBOTAR technique improves the performance of traffic-aware routing with higher delivery ratio, throughput and minimal normalized routing load, average end to end delay as well as collision rate.
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Fixed Parameters Simulation Comparison of the Generic Category Ad hoc Protocols

Fixed Parameters Simulation Comparison of the Generic Category Ad hoc Protocols

An ad hoc network has certain characteristics, which imposes new demands on the generic routing protocol. The most important characteristic is dynamic network topology, which is consequence of node mobility. Nodes can change position quite frequently, which means we need a routing protocol that quickly adapts to topology changes. Many Routing protocols have been developed for accomplishing this task. In this thesis we have simulated, analyzed and compared three homologous ad-hoc routing protocols DSDV, DYMO and ZRP at fixed scenarios. We have used Qualnet version 5.0.2 Simulator for the simulation of these routing protocols and compared them for throughput, average end to end delay, Average jitter, Mobility, Number of broadcast and query packets transmitted and received.
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CLUSTERING BASED ROUTING FOR DELAY- TOLERANT NETWORKS

CLUSTERING BASED ROUTING FOR DELAY- TOLERANT NETWORKS

Delay-tolerant networking (DTN) is an approach to computer network architecture that seeks to address the technical issues in heterogeneous networks that may lack continuous network connectivity. Due to the lack of continuous communications among mobile nodes and possible errors in the estimation of region contact probability, convergence and stability become major challenges in distributed clustering in DTMN. Clustering significantly reduces the energy consumption of a cluster. In this paper, a cluster based routing protocol for Delay-Tolerant Mobile Networks (DTMNs) is used. Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) scheme is employed for on-line updating region contact probability, with its mean proven to converge to the true contact probability. The gateway nodes exchange network information and perform routing. It uses clustering's structure to decrease overhead, average end-to-end delay and improve the average packet delivery ratio.
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Title: Impact of Pause Time on the Performance of DSR, LAR1 and FSR Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad hoc Network

Title: Impact of Pause Time on the Performance of DSR, LAR1 and FSR Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad hoc Network

Abstract- The performance analysis of the protocols is the most important step prior to selecting a meticulous protocol. In this paper, the performance of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Location-Aided Routing1 (LAR1) and Fisheye State Routing (FSR) protocols using Qualnet 5.0.2 simulator have been evaluated. The performance of above routing protocols has been evaluated on the basis average jitter, average end-to-end delay and throughput metrics. The simulation results show that average jitter, and average end-to-end delay is less in DSR protocol as compared to LAR1 protocol and FSR protocol. The throughput of FSR protocol is better in comparison of DSR protocol and LAR1 protocol. At the same time average jitter and end to end delay is less in LAR1 protocol as compared to FSR protocol. However throughput of LAR1 protocol is higher than that of DSR protocol.
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Title : A CROSS-LAYER GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING AUTHENTICATE IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSAuthor (s) :S.Sujatha, T.Bhuvaneswari

Title : A CROSS-LAYER GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING AUTHENTICATE IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSAuthor (s) :S.Sujatha, T.Bhuvaneswari

Proposed algorithm have much improved average end to end delay than AODV and other two load balanced routing protocols. DLAR and LARA . We can see that the end to end delay increase for all the protocols with increase in load. The packet now have to wait longer in the interface queue before being transmitted. Here, AODV suffers maximum delay as it topology as well. This behavior is as anticipated because delay mainly occurs in queuing and medium access control processing. These delays are reduced in proposed schemes by routing the packets toward nodes that are less occupied also taking into account more efficient node in terms of energy.
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Analytical Study of Position based Routing Protocols in VANET

Analytical Study of Position based Routing Protocols in VANET

We simulated routing protocols like GPSR, AMAR, BMFR and BMAR on NS2 and compared their performances. For comparison, we selected three metrics: packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and throughput. We have considered two parameters i.e. number of nodes and the simulation time for changing the simulation set up. For both set ups, we simulated and compared all the routing protocols and found that BMAR outperforms all the compared routing protocols. Its packet delivery ratio is highest and delay is lowest. It delivers the maximum packets accurately to the destination node within no time. Throughput of BMAR protocol is also highest in both the simulation scenarios which shows that maximum data is transmitted by BMAR in a given time period. We need to develop some more efficient routing protocol as VANET has main usage in safety related applications so message should reach the destination without any delay.
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Comparative Study on Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in MANETs

Comparative Study on Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in MANETs

Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes communicating with each other using multi-hop wireless links without any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Due to varying network topology the most common challenging factor in MANET is routing [1][2]. The purpose of this paper is to study, understand, analyze and to evaluate the performance between four mobile ad-hoc routing protocols: Ad-hoc On- demand Distance Vector (AODV), Destination sequenced distance vector (DSDV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP). DSR has the optimum performance in terms of mobility and speed in small scale networks but it loses its performance when the network size is increased. AODV is best suited when the load of the network is increased. ZRP is hybrid nature and comparable performance in average end-to-end delay and average throughput; but it is the worst performance in packet delivery ratio. This simulation results were analyzed by graphical manner and trace file based on different metrics; such as average throughput, packet delivery ratio (PDR) and average end to end delay.
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A New Method for Load Balancing and QOS in On demand Protocols–In the MANET’s Perspective

A New Method for Load Balancing and QOS in On demand Protocols–In the MANET’s Perspective

The second extension (Cost field) provides mobile nodes with sufficient information about different routes to achieve load balancing through the network. Second, using the ns -2 simulation environment, results are presented for a detailed packet-level simulation, comparing the two network routing protocols. The new proposed protocol is tested using different delay bounds to achieve QoS require ments. Each protocol is simulated in ad hoc networks of 50 wireless mobile nodes moving about and communicating with each other over a rectangular (1500m × 300m) flat space for 900 seconds of simulated time and results are presented for a range of node mobility rates and movement speeds. The following three performance metrics are used to compare the performance of the protocols: (a) average end-to-end delay, (b) packet delivery fraction, and (c) normalized routing load. The proposed protocol performs well in supporting the QoS feature. It has high performance for low network loads (low number of sources) by satisfying the QoS requirements with an average end-to-end delay almost half the delay required, in this case packet delivery fraction and normalized routing load are comparable to the original AODV protocol. For high network loads (high number of sources) the QoS requirements are still satisfied, the proposed protocol (with no delay constrains) outperforms the original AODV protocol allowing low end-to-end delay and high packet delivery fraction at points where the original AODV protocol suffers high network congestion and high end-to-end delay (sometimes even with low mobility rate). The delay extension can be used as a bandwidth extension to satisfy minimum bandwidth requirements. In addition, the cost extension can be used to take other parameters into consideration when creating a route to achieve load balancing. The protocol can be used to achieve QoS requirements in mobile ad hoc networks with large number of sources.
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AODV IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AODV IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

Grid and Uniform. We investigated the QOS metrics namely Average jitter, Average end-to-end delay , Packet delivery ratio and Throughput in various simulation scenarios by varying network size and maximum speed of the nodes. From the simulation results and analysis, a suitable protocol can be chosen for a specified environment. The results shows that the performance of AODV is better in Grid Environment comparative to other environments. Keywords: AODV, MANETs, Environments

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A Review on Energy Comparison for AODV, ZRP
and AODVDR Routing Protocols

A Review on Energy Comparison for AODV, ZRP and AODVDR Routing Protocols

[6] Ajay Singh(2014) et al: Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET) is a group of independent network mobile devices that are connected over various wireless links. It is relatively working on a constrained bandwidth. The network topologies are dynamic and may vary from time to time. Each device must act as a router for transferring any traffic among each other. This network can operate by itself or incorporate into large area network (LAN). In this paper, we have analyzed various Random based mobility models: Random Waypoint model, Random Walk model, Random Direction model and Probabilistic Random Walk model using AODV,DSDV and ZRP protocols in Network Simulator (NS 2.35). The performance comparison of MANET mobility models have been analyzed by varying number of nodes, type of traffic (CBR, TCP) and maximum speed of nodes. The comparative conclusions are drawn on the basis of various performance metrics such as: Routing Overhead (packets), Packet Delivery Fraction (%), Normalized Routing Load, Average End-to- End Delay (milliseconds) and Packet Loss (%).
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A Survey and Analysis on Scheduling Algorithms in IEEE 802  16e (WiMAX) Standard

A Survey and Analysis on Scheduling Algorithms in IEEE 802 16e (WiMAX) Standard

DFPQ with a counter was introduced to maintain the maximum allowable bandwidth for each service class. The counter decreases according to the size of the packets. The scheduler moves to another class once the counter falls to zero. DFPQ has also been used for inter-class scheduling. The problem with which DFPQ was introduced because queue length can be also used to set the priority level, e.g., more bandwidth is allocated to connections with longer queues. The direct negative effect of priority is that it may starve some connections of lower priority service classes. The throughput can be lower due to increased number of missed deadlines for the lower service classes’ traffic. [16] In DFPQ and SS-assisted algorithms, the average end-to- end delay for real-time packets increases at the beginning of the simulation time to its maximum value and then decreases to become almost stable. This initial increase is due to the fact that during the beginning of the simulation time, the SSs and the BS are busy attempting to complete the ranging process; hence, arriving packets are delayed causing a relatively high average delay. It is also observed that the DFPQ scheduler yields a higher average end-to-end delay for real-time classes than SS- assisted algorithms. Indeed, DFPQ only focuses on achieving high bandwidth utilization by dynamically dividing the bandwidth between the UL and DL sub frames.
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Robust Cross-Layer Network Optimization for Diverse QoS Requirements: Work in Progress

Robust Cross-Layer Network Optimization for Diverse QoS Requirements: Work in Progress

Abstract—Conventional approach to cross-layer network optimization assumes elastic users adjusting their bandwidth requirements in response to the resource congestion prices. This assumption leads to Network Utility Maximization (NUM) framework with Lagrange multipliers associated with resource capacity constraints playing role of the congestion prices. However, often users can more naturally quantify their preferences in terms of the rate and high-level Quality of Service (QoS) requirements rather than networks level end-to-end bandwidth requirements. This paper suggests that replacing resource capacity constraints with constraints on the feasible QoS parameters may lead to cross-layer network optimization framework with elastic users adjusting their diverse QoS requirements directly in response to the QoS-sensitive prices. We illustrate the proposed framework on examples of end-to-end bandwidth allocation subject to the worst-case scenario and average end-to-end delay.
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The Enhancement of Routing Security in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

The Enhancement of Routing Security in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

In this paper we study the routing security issues of MANETs, we propose an algorithm to detect malicious nodes based on intelligent water drops algorithm and examine "routing modification attack" problem that can easily be exploited against the MANETs. We also propose a solution for this problem and examine security issues related to proactive routing protocols for MANETs. This could be achieved by adding some extensions to secure routing. These extensions include integrity which means that the message will not change along the route and authentication which means that the sender is the one who introduces himself. This protection is provided by a hash chain and authentication by digital signature which both added to all control massages. We obtained acceptable results depending on the performance of metrics(end-to-end delay and network load). The difference in average of end-to-end delay when using secure protocol is very small and the average of network load is also very small.
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Article Description

Article Description

Abstract––In an ad hoc network, mobile nodes communicate with each other using multi-hop wireless links. There is no stationary infrastructure such as base stations. The routing protocol must be able to keep up with the high degree of node mobility that often changes the network topology drastically and unpredictably. Most of the on demand routing protocols for Manets namely AODV and DSR perform well with uniform output under low network load, mobility, traffic sources. The objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the performances of each of these protocols under large number of traffic sources, greater mobility with lesser pause time and varying offered load. Also the metrics taken into account are: Packet Size /average throughput of generating packets, Packet size / average simulation end to end delay, packet send time at source node / end-to-end delay. On the basis of the obtained results the performances of the above- mentioned on demand routing protocols for Manets is compared using network simulator-2 (NS2).
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Using CAP dimensionality for service and user allocation for optical access networks

Using CAP dimensionality for service and user allocation for optical access networks

The end-to-end QoS parameters include packet delivery ratio, packet dropped distribution, average end-to-end packet delay and average session throughput using Hyper Text Transfer Protoco[r]

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Rebroadcasting Neighbour Coverage Routing Protocol in MANET using MAC layer Design

Rebroadcasting Neighbour Coverage Routing Protocol in MANET using MAC layer Design

The average delay in the network is the success of data delivery packets from source to destination node by their time different like end time difference to start time of the data transmission.DTN (Delay tolerant network) is shown in fig 4.From the fig of delay graph we can tell that AODV protocol will search the best neighbour to reach destination unless it Find the shortest routing path in the network but our proposed protocol RBNC will separate the covered and uncovered

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