With the introduction of GPGPUs, parallel programming has become simple and affordable. APIs such as NVIDIA’s CUDA have attracted many programmers to port their applications to GPGPUs. But writing CUDA codes still remains a challenging task. Moreover, the vast repositories of legacy serial C codes, which are still in wide use in the industry, are unable to take any advantage of this extra computing power available. Lot of attempts have thus been made at developing auto-parallelization techniques to convert a serial C code to a corresponding parallel CUDA code. Some parallelizes, allow programmers to add ―hints‖ to their serial programs, while another approach has been to build an interactive system between programmers and parallelizing tools/compilers. But none of these are really automatic techniques, since the programmer is fully involved in the process. In this paper, we present an automatic parallelization tool that completely relieves the programmer of any involvement in the parallelization process. Preliminary results with a basic set of usual C codes show that the tool is able to provide a significant speedup of ~10 times.
In the last section, so many C code optimization techniques have been discussed those have implemented to optimized C code written for Oppositional Whale Grey Wolf Algorithm with Control Search Space (OWGWA-CSS). In this work, the code for OWGWA-CSS is implemented in MATLAB first and then converted to C using MATLAB coder. Then the code composer studio compiler has been used to make it ready for porting the code to TMS320C6713. Before the implementation of Adaptive Noise Canceller, C code optimization techniques have been applied. The various C code optimization methods have been applied after finding the exact place of optimization by using the profiling tool of code composer studio. The performance of the OWGWA- CSS algorithm is analysed by obtaining the number of cycles needed to execute the OWGWA-CSS algorithm code before
All the tools mentioned above created only one persistent pool in the transformed source code, but the programs might require more pools for their operations. However, a more sophisticated tool would need to be implemented for such cases. If there were multiple pools in a program, then there could be a field in an object that could point to objects in the same region/pool or objects in another NVRegion/pool. If a typed persistent pointer was used in this case, then we will have to duplicate the structures to two different types: one containing the field type as Off-holder and another containing the field type as RIV. So, that will result in having three types for the same underlying data structure. And if there are any interplay between these objects, which have the same underlying structure but are of different types, owing to the different types of persistent pointers they are using as their member fields, then it will be very difficult to transform the source code, and will require a lot of manual effort from the user and also some design changes in the program.
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transformation framework thereby enabling it to find good tiling hyperplanes for parallelism and locality. The view of tiling hyperplanes on the original domain is preserved till code generation. At the same time, input which cannot be tiled or only partially tiled is all handled, and standard transformations are captured. In addition to model-based approaches, semiautomatic and search-based transformation frameworks in the polyhedral model also exist. Though Pluto now is fully model-driven, some amount of empirical and iterative optimization may be required on complementary aspects, like tile size and unroll factor determination. Also, decision problems involved with fusion are good candidates for empirical search. Alternatively, more powerful cost models may be employed
---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - The standard mathematical library known as libm oﬀers a small set of functions in a small set of precisions. Performance of libm functions is of critical importance, in particular in scientiﬁc and ﬁnancial computing libm for each new processor, a time-consuming and error-prone task. A ﬁrst objective of this project is therefore to automate libm development, up to the point where libms generated in a fraction. Applications often require functions not present in the libm. In such case, a composition of libm functions may be very ineﬃcient, or simply not possible (function deﬁned by a diﬀerential equation or by interpolation of a set of data points for instance). Even the libm functions are oﬀered in a limited choice of implementations which will most of the time poorly match the actual needs of an application in terms of range, accuracy, performance and resource consumption. The set of functions and contexts available to programmers. The process of implementing a mathematical function into code is composed of several steps; typically range reduction, approximation, evaluation (additions, multiplications, and pre- computed constant values). Approach of this project is therefore to unify the understanding of function, sharing common mathematical, methodological, and implementation tools. In particular this will lead to on-demand generation for the same breadth of targets and with the same guarantees on numerical quality.
Application developers write code as standard ANSI C, avoiding certain constructs such as pointers. The compiler aims to extract obvious parallelism within loop bodies as well as to pipeline loops wherever possible. In nested loops, the compiler pipelines the innermost loop. One must also ensure loops do not break any of the rules for pipelining. The code must be non-recursive, and must not access memory arrays more times per cycle than can be accommodated by the underlying memory structure. Beyond these considera- tions the user does not need any knowledge of hardware de- sign in order to produce VHDL code of pipelined architec- tures that implement algorithms. DIME-C supports bit-level, integer and floating-point arithmetic. The compiler also sup- ports the inclusion of support libraries that allow users to implement functions previously created either in DIME-C or via a more traditional design process directly using HDLs. Additionally, the compiler seeks to exploit the essentially serial nature of the programs to resource share between sec- tions of the code that do not execute concurrently. This means the compiler can implement complex algorithms that demand many floating-point operations, provided no concur- rently executing code aims to use more resources than are available on the device. Such a resource-sharing optimisation would be extremely difficult to implement manually using HDL. The compiler displays its temporal scheduling visually and produces a report file that together show the parallelisa- tion of the user code. Figure 1 below shows the programming process used. DIMETalk is used here is equivalent to a soft- ware linker to link the DIME-C code to the necessary mem- ory structure and the specific hardware platform.
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The Eiffel  compiler from Interactive Software Engineering also attempts to minimize unreachable procedures. Eiffel code is first converted to an intermediate form and then compiled to C. The final executable is generated by compiling the equivalent C and linking in the system libraries and code from other languages present in object form. The compiler can remove unreachable procedures in Eiffel code by compiling all Eiffel code to its intermediate form and generating C code only for those routines that may be needed, but cannot remove unreachable procedures in system libraries and routines from other languages that are present in object form and are linked in by the system linker in a later phase.
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“For” loop parallelization is achieved through the use of the directive “#pragma omp parallel for”. It is possible to parallelize nested “for” loops too by adding collapse clause to the pragma directive of the outermost “for” loop, however, this is beneficial only for certain kinds of nested loops. In some situations, loops perform better without nested parallelization. Thus, there is a necessity to understand conditions to be satisfied in order to make nested loop parallelism beneficial. It has been found that perfect nesting and rectangular iteration space makes nested loops a suitable candidate for use of collapse clause. Loops are said to be perfectly nested if there are no lines of code between the “for” loop headers. An example of such a code is matrix addition. The C code for Matrix multiplication can also be modified to satisfy the criteria. Such programs show considerable improvement in performance on using the collapse clause. It is the responsibility of the system to identify such loops and add the clause accordingly.
In this study, the simulation of simple bending problem is performed using an example of cantilever beam which is an important structural member. The author executed numerical simulations for simple and cracked cantilever beams using finite element stiffness method, analytical beam theory, finite element package (ANSYS) and then verified results with code generated in C++ language. In conclusions, the comparison of results is tabulated and the graphs suggested that the finite element method give less deflection as compared with the results obtained using beam theory for any specific location along span length. MD-Solid software is used to draw bending moment and shear force diagram.
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Abstract- In the present era, developing high level application programs has been a major concern for the programmers. During the design phase of software application, the functionality of developed programs has always been the area of consideration. Different compilers may have in built mechanism to speed up the programs, but these compilation process may adversely affect the length of the code and hence slower the execution of highly developed applications. Thus, to enhance the performance of the large complex applications, several code optimization techniques are being provided by the compilers in C. These code expansion techniques are predominated over manual coding techniques as they help in speeding up the process of program execution in such a way that both time and reserved memory space can be effectively utilized. In this paper we discuss about our implemented work on Code Optimization using two techniques: “Dead Code Elimination” and “Inlining”. Our implemented work is automatic procedure which eliminates the chances of errors that are quite possible in manual procedures. We have verified the code optimization performance using code complexity measurement tools. Results obtained are quite satisfactory as compare to existing methods.
Such a bifurcation does not align well with the underlying concern of whether or not art is being properly advanced. The distinction be- tween educational and commercial distracts attention from art’s real value to a democracy and fails to place art on an equal footing with science. Commerciality is only allowed up to the point where artists are actually being benefitted. A fulsome effort at fostering the diver- sity of art that justifies its public support would weigh public against private benefit in light of such a purpose, as opposed to the purpose developing his capabilities,” or “instruct[ing] the public on subjects useful to the individual and beneficial to the community.” Treas. Reg. § 1.501(c)(3)-1(d)(3)(i)(a)-(b). With regard to the former, “[t]he experience of exhibiting and attempting to sell art works is likely to be essential for an artist’s development.” Edward J. Rodriguez, Federal Tax Exemption Status of the Private Nonprofit Art Association, 10 C ONN . L. R EV . 653, 661 (1978). With regard to the latter, the sale of art work might attract (and thus educate) more of the public and make art more widely disseminated, increasing its impact on the public. If the goal is to encourage participation in the arts, it appears necessary at some level that artists benefit from the funding regime.
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We will not go into the OFDM fundamentals here, see e.g. . In summary, at the top we have the transmitter chain consisting of inner (convolutional) coder, block interleaving (frequency domain spreading of adjacent bits) and sub-carrier mapping, IFFT transforming the complex OFDM symbol to time-domain samples, guard- interval (cyclic-prefix) insertion, pulse shaping and fi- nally up-conversion to RF. In our case, all these blocks were implemented in C++ using CCS and the executable then downloaded to the DSK6713 board. The up-con- version to “RF” was done using the mixer mentioned above, converting the 12 kHz IF signal output from the onboard DSK6713 CODEC to a 10.724MHz signal radi- ated from a random wire a few feet long. See Figure 2.
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Total 251 samples of commercial pasteurized milk packet distributed in schools (code A), raw milk collection centers in Gonabad city (code B) and pasteurized milk production factories (code C) in Gonabad city were included in the study. The samples were collected in 2009-2013 years, and once a month, 200 micro liters of milk were collected randomly in sterile containers on which the product specifications were listed. The samples were divided into three groups, for which the brand name of the products were not mentioned to observe the ethical considerations. The milk samples were transferred to the laboratory at Food and Drug Administration Deputy. The Copan test kit of Denmark Christian Hansen Company was utilised to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in milk samples. Copan test, is a quick, particular, and applicable method, which is useful in regulatory and production centers for food products and is used to indicate the presence of the antibiotics by inhibiting microbial growth .
the backlog of the ﬁrst (resp., second) decoding as against the second (resp., ﬁrst) one. Guzmán  suggested to look at the simpliﬁed domino graph and the domino func- tion of C . The simpliﬁed domino graph of C is a subgraph of the domino graph of C . Replace E 1 by E 1 =
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This paper presents the implementation of code and carrier tracking loop with different values of each parameter and their effects. The input GPS signal is recorded from RF-front end (RTL2832u) and since the antenna is not in sky space, there are few satellites in the current captured signal. In acquisition results, four satellites (PRN 26,23,22 and 16) are acquired and all satellites have lower ±10 kHz which are maximum value of Doppler frequency caused by the motion between satellites and receiver. For the results of tracking loop, only PRN 26 is used to describe since the results are similar with each other. In an implementation of code and carrier tracking loop, outputs of DLL and PLL for 1000ms of the signal are described. The analysis of the effect of different values for damping ratio, loop gain, noise bandwidth has been presented. For DLL, three different discriminator or early-late spacing values are tested and narrow values makes greater accuracy and smaller code phase variance. Bits of navigation message are successfully obtained from the in-phase of the prompt output of DLL. MATLAB programming language is used in the proposed GPS software receivers. The main goal is to study the parameters based on their effects on both tracking loops for future implementation of advanced GPS software receiver. The findings of this research outcome are confirmed based on the theoretical analysis.
Bowers, Juels, and Oprea  extended the idea of Juels and Kaliski  and used error- correcting codes. The main difference in their construction is that they use the idea of an “outer” and an “inner” code (in the same vein as concatenated codes), to get a good balance between the extra storage overhead and computational overhead in responding to the audits. Dodis, Vadhan, and Wichs  provided the first example of an unconditionally secure PoR scheme, also constructed from an error-correcting code, with extraction performed through list decoding in conjunction with the use of an almost-universal hash function. They also give different constructions depending on the computational capabilities of the server. Paterson et al.  studied PoR schemes in the setting of unconditional security, and showed some close connections to error-correcting codes.
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In this paper, the structure and composition of the GPS signal, track simulation, and the pseudo random noise code (C/A code and P code) and correlation analysis and D code modulation and spread spectrum method are introduced in detail based on practical application, then studied the capture method of frequency domain based on fast Fourier transform; Whereafter the principle of gaussian white noise of GPS signal and its interference with the space transmission characteristics are discussed. Finally,
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MY-DRG® grouper is one of the grouper that are being used in Malaysia. In this system, each DRGs code was made up from 5 alphanumeric codes (one letter and four numbers). The first digit refers to the Casemix Main Group (CMG) which refers to the body systems (labeled in Alphabet (A-Z), for example, A = Infectious and parasitic disease group), the second digit refers to the discipline to which the patients are assigned to (1 = sur- gical, 4 = medical, 6 = Obstetric & Gynecology, 8 = Paedi- atric), the third and fourth digit refer to specific DRGs groups called the Case-Based Group (CBG), and the final digit refers to the patients ’ severity level (I = mild, II = moderate, III = Severe) (Fig. 2).
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The purpose of the IMO Port Recommendation is to serve as a standard framework for use in the preparation of Port Regulations to ensure the safe transport, handling and storage of dangerous sabstances in port areas. The IMO Port Recommendations are not supposed to be copied un changed since they take into consideration the fact that prevailing special conditions on local or national level would not allow a totally uniform set of rules. They are a guide, and the Ports Authority has to revise its own safety rules in line with the IMO Port Recommendations. The revised Port Regulations must adopt the IMDG Code, as the principal code of practice which should be used as a guide where applicable and be made mandatory where requi red ( e.g. classification, packing, marking, labelling, and placarding and documentation ). In addition, the regulations must subdivide dangerous goods as to direct delivery, quantity limitation, allocation of special handling and storage spaces, documentary and administra tive requirements, operational procedure and other crite
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Since the spectral shape of a protograph is found numerically, and only approxi- mately, calculating the derivatives is not feasible. However, we can still compare the enumerators to the shifted entropy function visually, and see what we notice. We expect the minimum weight of the dual code to be equal to the minimum row weight of the protomatrix. If this were true, protomatrices with higher row sums would have spectral shapes more like the shifted entropy function. Here we will focus on rate 1/2 protomatrices with a single row, corresponding to a single class of check node. In this case, the outer non-convex maximization problem does not exist, and thus the spectral shape is easier to calculate and far more accurate.
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