In order to remain competitive in today’s technologically driven world, companies try to determine the optimal settings of design attribute of new products from which the best customer satisfaction can be obtained. Identification of customer requirements is the starting point of design process. Most of design approaches focus on technical domains to define customer requirements. However, the success of product design nowadays goes beyond technical features; it often depends heavily on multi-facets of customers’ needs including various business parameters. In this paper, a method of incorporating customer requirements for criteria assessment in design evaluation process has been developed. The first stage of the methodology selects the criteria and identifying parameters. The second stage calculates the weight of TRIZ (an acronym for the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving). Case examples from industry are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the application of TRIZ in assessing criteria by incorporating customer requirements provides an alternative to existing methods.
Electronic banking – the execution of financial services via the Internet – changed the business of retail banks significantly, at the same time reducing costs and increas- ing convenience for the customer. The ever-increasing spread of Internet-enabled phones and personal digital assistants (PDA) made the transformation of banking applications to mobile devices a logical development of electronic banking. This created a new subset of elec- tronic banking, mobile banking. According to the sweep- ing enthusiasm that characterized much of the news re- porting in the years 1999 and 2000 mobile banking should by now have been firmly established as the most important distribution and communication channel for retail banking. Reality today is a different matter though. Mobile banking as an established channel still seems to be a distant prospect.
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Quality Function Deployment (QFD) has been widely recognized as an essential tool in product development or customer driven services (Akao, 1990; Prasad, 1998; Ho et al, 1999;. Han et al, 2004;. Wang and Xiong, 2011; Raharjo et al, 2011).. QFD has been widely implemented in different areas of engineering. The most important strength of QFD is its focus on customer needs and the consistent translation of their needs at each stage of the product development process. QFD stands for Quality Function Deployment. Quality Function Deployment is a structured method in which customer requirements are translated into appropriate technical requirements for each stage of product development and production (Koronacki, J.&Thompson, J.R. 2001). The QFD process is often referred to listen to the voice of the customer, is considered to be concurrent engineering tools. Basically, the customer requirements involved QFD (product specification), to the product design parameters mathematically. The result is a product design driven by mathematics. Quality control was firstly used for production and manufacturing areas as well as for inspection area, but soon it expanded to all areas of many organization (Jiang et al., 2007). When using methods such as QFD, the organization's product improvement plan is more structured (Gremyr & Raharjo, 2013). Today, QFD is successfully applicable in various manufacturing industries as a powerful decision making tool (Ginnand Zairi, 2005). The QFD starts by collecting the voice of customers and develops by forming matrices (Jiang et al., 2007). Paying no attention to this issue results in implementing the project over a longer period of time with low quality and higher cost. Also in some cases, it leads to no business justification of the project (Cheng et al., 2009; Diani & Shiruiyezad, 2012). An optimized design is the first step in the development of products, and many EDR needs to be considered. There are different product design quality models available in the literature. Among many analytical techniques, scrolling function model quality (QFD) is particularly famous for its successful applications to transform customer satisfaction in design stage. Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method (TOPSIS) has been used to help decision- making in many fields. Furthermore, the integration of QFD TOPSIS and can achieve good performance in many tasks. In addition, the product design quality researchers have become increasingly aware of the decision problems. The purpose of this article is to clarify the analysis aggregated using QFD and TOPSIS and solve the problem of quantitative decision to the quality of product design.
The whole conversion and the innovation process can be divided into the following four steps: identification and predictions of customer requirements; development selection of customer requirements; transformation of requirements to the product specification and the design; manufacture and production of final products. Among them, selecting the appropriate demand resources from the identified set of requirements is the crucial step of successful customized product innovation. Differed from material resources, the demand resources is abstract, dynamic and complex. It is no practical significance that converts all customer demands onto product functions under resource constraints. The risk of requirement selection is usually presented in two aspects: inaccurate de- mand choosing and developed more than expected. The developed new product based on inaccurate choices cannot achieve customer satisfaction. In addition, in all identified requirements, some invisible requirements of the product attributes are likely to show its actual application value after a long period of time. Therefore, if the requirements are developed excessively of inappropriately, the innovation process will increase the difficulty and the cost, extend the development cycle, and at the same time be criticized by the end customers due to pro- viding excessive additional functionality that is no practical value. Therefore, we need to find a way to compre- hensive consideration to a variety of demand, analyze the important degree of customer requirements, translate them into new products and finally achieve maximum customer satisfaction.
its competitors for each requirement or “What”. Such a comparison is entered in the section on “customer assessment of competitors”. Thus, customer perception of the product or service is verified, which will help identify strengths and weaknesses of the company.Different focus groups or surveys should be used to attain statistical objectivity.One outcome of the analysis might be new customer requirements, which would be then added to the list of “Whats,” or the importance ratings might change.Result from analysis will indicate what dimension of the product or service the company should focus on the same rating scale that is used to denote the importance ratings of the customer requirements is used in this analysis. Coming up with a list of technical descriptors-the “HOW’S”-that will enable company to accomplish the customer requirements is the next step in the QFD process.Multidisciplinary teams whose members originate in various departments will brainstorm to arrive at this list.Departments such as product design and development,manufacturing, marketing ,sales and customer service are likely to be presented in the team.The key is to have a breadth of disciplines in order to “capture” all feasible ‘Hows”.The correlation matrix of the relationship between the technical descriptor is the “roof” of the house of quality.In the correlation matrix ,four levels of relationships are depicted:strong positive,positive,negative,and storng negative.The matrix indicates the degree to which the “HOW’S” support or complement each other or are in conflict.Negative relationships may require a trade-off in the objective values of the “HOW’S” when a technical competitive assesment is conducted.
After the first stage of the study, another questionnaire was prepared, pilot tested, and modified for use in the second stage, which involved application of the QFD technique. A pilot study was conducted to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. The quantitatively and statistically proven items and attributes were classified under two broad headings: customer requirements and design characteristics. These were then incorporated in the questionnaires that were distributed to respondents. Customer expectations and requirements regarding a telecom “bundle of services” program were identified and grouped as customer requirements. A total of 14 items were identified that were grouped under five factors/constructs, with Cronbach‟s values ranging from 0.6850 to 0.7851. The various components that could lead to a customer-focused telecom “bundle of services” program were also identified and grouped as design characteristics. Here, a total of 20 items were identified that were grouped under four factors/constructs, with the Cronbach‟s values ranging from 0.6245 to 0.8224. These values clearly indicated that the scale was internally consistent and reliable [Cronbach, 1951; Nunnally, 1978; Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994].
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Reliability is defined as “ the probability that an item can perform a required function under given conditions for a given time interval” . T he definition contains 4 aspects, namely probability, function, time interval and conditions. Conditions include environment, user demand profile, user skill, maintenance and logistic support. It is a full definition of the scenario in which the system is required to exist and operate. T herefore, any numerical measure of reliability is scenario dependent. However, increased likelihood of product performance does not necessarily improve achievement of scenario objectives. Rather, it depends on the degree of linkage between it and those objectives, particularly where there are competing factors. For example, during design, increased reliability may compete against maximum performance or, in-service, increased maintenance may improve reliability but also increase cost. Generally, neither product reliability nor maintenance is an attribute required in its own right. Rather, they are desired because of the wider benefits they offer. T his applies to all attributes related to reliability and maintenance (e.g. Durability & Dependability )). It could be argued, therefore, that reliability and maintenance should never be direct, specific customer requirements.
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One characteristic of the Quality Management System according to ISO 9000 must be developed in the form of documents and operating on that document. However, if the quality management document system in the organization is completely built but does not guarantee the active participation of everyone, the quality management system does not actually operate; activities and processes are carried out subjectively by the implementers, so it is difficult to control and easily cause the failure to meet the requirements. This effectively reduces the quality management system in the organization. The involvement of employees demonstrates their role and responsibility in complying with the quality management documents of the enterprise, as well as proposing ideas to improve these documents to better ensure Make sure the operation process is done to produce the correct results as required.
Requirements Model. To capture all of the functions/tasks and interactions required for the system supplier to perform its role, we have developed a Hatley/Pirbhai requirements model [Hatley and Pirbhai 1987] using the TurboCase/Sys software tool from StructSoft Inc. In this study, we have focused on the design, development, documentation, and program management of the vehicle electrical/electronic system (see context diagram in Figure 1). From Figure 1, one may see that the system supplier has to interface with the automobile manufacturer (OEM Customer) for the Request For Proposal/Request For Quote (RFP/RFQ) and purchase order, with the vehicle assembly plant, service center, government, and manufacturing plant for product related requirements. The system supplier also interfaces with dealerships to purchase competitive vehicles, with the user and industry to determine future trends/needs, and with vendors to make sure state of the art software tools are being developed and applied during the design of the vehicle E/E system. It should be noted that the system model developed as part of this paper can be extended to include other basic functions of an organization related to the supplier, employee, investor, and so on. For illustration purposes we restricted our analysis to the design, development, and program management related functions of an automotive system supplier organization.
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clothing" and "save the customer database data". The first factor is the display module and the later both is background processing module which are mainly operate through database management. Therefore this article named it as "data management"; The second common factor is "show trends and putting forward modified opinions". The factors make customers jointly with stylist participate in the popular trend forecast. So, this article named it as "resource sharing"; The third public factor is "simulate human". This article named it as" function of visual experience".
Market orientation has been emerged from the marketing theory and originated from the marketing concept philosophy. Describing the marketing concept, “Peter F Drucker (1954) suggested that purpose of a business is to create customers that are satisfied.” Researchers have been observing the concept of market orientation and trying to explain and develop its constructs. Concept of orientation is in the sense that whether the organization is local, national or multinational. It not only focuses on recognizing the information that recognizes the consumer requirements, incorporates that information and then responds to it in the sense. It will help them in producing goods and services that help in fulfilling the needs of consumers, and as an organizational culture that infuses in all other tasks of an organization. Later on, different researchers explained that the market driven firm’s orientation is towards staying ahead of competition and focusing on satisfying the requirements of customers (Kotler, 1977). But, the particular features and elements of an organization that is market driven were insufficiently tested or even explained till latest market orientation research (Kohli&Jaworski, 1990; Narver& Slater, 1990). As per Lafferty and Hult, 2001, implementation of marketing concept is market orientation. Thus, market orientation is ‘dealing with the methods and tasks linked with generating and gratifying customer needs by constantly assessing their wants and requirements, and keep on doing it in the same sense so that there is a measurable and obvious impact on performance of business (Uncles, 2000, p.i).’ In conjunction with various other recognized variables, orientation is important to strategic management because they are being affiliated with the better organizational and financial performance (Narver& Slater, 1990).”
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stronger bargaining power as the cost to switch to another service is considered as low. The hospitality industry has strong market competition; therefore, customer satisfaction and retaining loyalty will be crucial for a hotel’s success. The Total Quality Management (TQM) methodology can help organizations to achieve business excellence by improving customer satisfaction (both internal and external), cost effectiveness and competitive advantage (SME Toolkit, 2011). This methodology is useful for the hospitality industry. In a hotel, any quality problem will induce guest complaints; the impact is direct and immediate without any time delay. Also, a hotel serves human beings and no two people are alike. People have different preferences and requirements which makes it more difficult to control quality in a hotel. For successful TQM practice, organizations have to integrate the quality management into the business strategy and to align the goals both horizontally and vertically throughout the various levels within the organization. In a typical hotel, there are three vertical levels - the senior management level, the business level (middle management) and the functional level (shop floor). Horizontally, there are departments – front office, food and beverage (F&B), housekeeping, sales and marketing, human resources, accounting, engineering and culinary. Nowadays, almost all hotels focus on quality management to improve their business. Oakland (2003) emphasizes that TQM is about teamwork; every functional department must work cohesively together and support each other in order to achieve business excellence. The effectiveness of teamwork determines the success of TQM in each hotel; this is why some hotels have better performance than others. However, the focus of the most recent research on TQM in the hospitality industry is only on the service from front-line departments such as front office and F&B (Saunders et al, 1992; Harrington & Keating, 2006); they ignore the efforts from back-of-house departments. A. Need for a Quality System
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A couple of years after that, Sensata had to make the decision to make another ‘line move’ to China. In first place there was decided to do this in a slower and more structured way, but with sights on the economic crisis the production lines had to be moved quickly. During the second half of 2008, and the first half of 2009 the transfer took place, so since the beginning of this year Sensata Electrical Protection does not have production lines in Europe anymore. This was a way to reduce costs, and because of decreasing demands from customers an effective time to do so, since Sensata was still able to assemble what was ordered. With this second move there were more things that had to be changed. Besides the decrease in responsibility for the process and manufacturing, also responsibility for the design of the products had to be moved to China. For the Chinese location this meant that they gained these new responsibilities in a relatively small amount of time, and there was the need to hire and train a lot of new engineers. For the European organization this meant that the responsibility for design and quality engineering disappeared. Former design engineers became a field application engineer, which means that there role is now more related towards customers’ application, to fulfill their needs at a high level. They are the internal voice of the customer (technical). They have to make the decision on conception (functional & constraints.
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The concept of customer care in the NHS is not always embraced by nurses and other healthcare professionals, who may consider that a shift from ‘patient’ to ‘customer’ will change the nature of the caring relationship. The term patient is often associated with the sick role and perceived as being more passive (Faulkner and Aveyard 2002). The term ‘customer’ evokes placing health care on a business-like footing – associated with privatisation and a demand for greater rights, power and choice. Customers are people who pay for goods and who expect good value for money in return. If the service is of high quality they will return and enhance the service provider’s reputation through sharing their experience with others. The incentives for providing high quality customer care in the NHS are self-evident in a business context.
Organizational wealth is enhanced whenever the value of output from operations is increased without comparable increases in resources or risks, or when re- source use and/or risks are reduced without comparable reductions in the value of the output (Margolis, 2001; Hatten, 1999). In its relationships with stakeholders, the corporation may achieve these results directly – as when favorable customer relations increase brand loyalty (re- ducing market risk) – or indirectly, as when improved collaboration and trust within the operating environment increases productivity. It appears that both specific and general effects can be achieved when firm bases its rela- tionships with stakeholders on mutually supportive con- tributions and benefits.
The paper presented a case study on optimising the heat-treated properties of carbonitrided bushes using design of experiments. Since optimising the response variables individually would adversely impact the performance of other response, the response variables surface hardness and case depth were simultaneously optimised using desirability function. Moreover the study became a useful and effective input to design the production process to manufacture bushes with customer specified heat-treated properties.
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Strategic Direction: A brief historical review of the literature suggests that many changes have taken place in the corporate orientation and strategy followed by corresponding changes in the training provided by the firms to their employees (Valle, Martin, Romero & Dolan, 2000). Technological, economic, and social changes are causing organizations to depend more and more on training to accomplish their objectives. Business objectives are accomplished when training practices, procedures, and systems are developed and implemented based on organizational needs, that is, when a strategic perspective to training and development is adopted (Baird & Meshoulam, 1988). In this era of continuous changes & developments a flexible strategic direction of a company helps it to effectively run its activities (such as production, finance, marketing, HR & others) to fulfill certain needs, objectives & to reach specific goals that the organization desires. Strategic arrangement of training and development directly encourages organizational business goals and objectives. By working from a point of view of the intended strategic initiative an individual gradually learns new skills and develop new business relationships, thereby acquiring new human and social capital (Lovas & Ghoshal, 2000). A strategic direction of a company should clearly communicates its objectives of training and ultimately provide solutions that could cater the real needs of the customer. To a company in order to achieve its true potential from its strategic direction, top management ensures their undivided attention (Simon, 1993).
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Abstract: High-speed networks and ubiquitous Internet access become available to users for access anywhere at anytime. Cloud computing is a concept that treats the resources on the Internet as a unified entity, a Cloud storage is a model of networked online storage where data is stored in virtualized pools of storage which are generally hosted by third parties. Hosting companies operate large data centers, The data center operators, in the background, virtualized the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as storage pools, which the customers can themselves use to store files or data objects. Physically, the resource may span across multiple servers. Data robustness is a major requirement for storage systems. There have been many proposals of storing data over storage servers. One way to provide data robustness is to replicate a message such that each storage server stores a copy of the message. A decentralized erasure code is suitable for use in a distributed storage system.
The provision of quality, satisfaction, and value to customers has become a priority for both manufacturers and service providers in the increasingly competitive customer-focused markets of the contemporary era (Wang et al., 2004). In a service setting, it is widely accepted that perceptions of quality, satisfaction, and value are primarily determined by the interactions between customers and front-line representatives of the service provider. As a consequence, a huge amount of research has explored the impacts of these interactions on customers‘ perceptions of value and quality. In this regard, Dean (2004) proposed a general overarching conception in which organisational characteristics and practices were linked to employee attitudes, which were subsequently reflected in service-quality outcomes, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and, ultimately, in organisational profit and success.
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As seen in Figures 14 and 15, at the retailer’s level, the product specifications focus on the fabric characteristics rather than the yarn characteristics. Retailers RR1, RR3, RR6 and RR8 explained that if they request other specific yarn characteristics, it would be when they are re- sourcing the fabric with alternate sources to duplicate the quality of the existing source. They normally do not get into highly detailed specifications as hairiness, twist multiples, staple length, tensile strength as they rely on the fabric development testing and garment testing to gauge the results of the performance of the fabric. If the fabric passes all of the standard fabric testing such as pilling after laundering, random tumble pilling, appearance retention after launderings, etc.; they know that the overall quality of the yarn that was used was sufficient or exceeded their requirements for quality standards for their consumers. They will get in contact with the mills only if there is a quality problem that needs to be investigated.
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