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MODERATING EFFECT OF DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION								
								
								     
								     
								   

MODERATING EFFECT OF DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION      

Customer satisfaction and customer retention is an ultimate objective of every organization in service sector as well as in other sectors. To reduce customer churn, customer satisfaction plays a vital role. Customers classified on the basis of their gender, occupation, income, age group etc. carry a different perspective towards the same organization. The present research was carried out to explore the customer satisfaction towards the public sector Insurer, Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC). To carry out the research moderating effect of various demographic factors was taken into consideration. Significant difference was observed in the Customer satisfaction of LIC on the basis of gender and profession. However there was insignificant difference in customer satisfaction on the basis of age, household income and marital status was found. The present study is aimed to reveal the level of customer satisfaction on the basis of demographic variables.
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Abusive Supervision and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Moderating Effect of Negative Affectivity

Abusive Supervision and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Moderating Effect of Negative Affectivity

To test the moderating effect of negative affectivity between abusive supervision and counterproductive work behavior, we first set up the model including only the control variables: gender, age, working years and level of education. In the second step we include mean-centered coefficient of abusive supervision and counterproduc- tive work behavior. In the third step, the mean-centered interaction variable is also included. The result of the regression analysis is shown in Table 6.

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The Influence of Power Sense on Cooperation: The Mediating Effect of Perceived Control and the Moderating Effect of Dominance Motivation

The Influence of Power Sense on Cooperation: The Mediating Effect of Perceived Control and the Moderating Effect of Dominance Motivation

This article uses three studies to explore the relationship between power sense and cooperation and its psychological mechanism. There are four core assump- tions. H1: Power sense is positively related to the cooperative personality; H2: Power sense positively affects cooperation; H3: Perceived control plays a me- diating role in the process of the influence of power sense on cooperation; H4: Dominant motivation can be effective moderate the influence of power sense on the perceived control. At different levels of dominance motivation, power sense has different effect on perceived control. Study 1 examines the relationship be- tween power sense and cooperative personality; Study 2 explores the effect of power sense on cooperation by using laboratory experiments; Study 3 explores the psychological mechanism of power sense affecting cooperation. We examine the mediating effect of perceived control and the moderating effect of domin- ance motivation by using laboratory experiments.
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Antecedents of Trust in the Ridesharing Service: The Moderating Effect of User Experience

Antecedents of Trust in the Ridesharing Service: The Moderating Effect of User Experience

User experience refers to an individual’s passage of time from the initial use of an information technology. The moderating effect of user experience has been examined within the extant literatures, and empirical research findings suggest that individuals will change their beliefs and behaviors regarding the use of a target technology across different time frames (Venkatesh et al., 2003; Venkatesh et al., 2012). If individuals possess high experiences of the new information technology, they are more likely to elaborate or take a logical and rational route in processing the arguments on the platform (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986; Bhattacherjee and Sanford, 2006; Lowry et al., 2012). On the contrary, if individuals have low experiences and not familiar with the information technology, they are less likely to elaborate on the presented arguments. Instead, they prefer to take a peripheral processing route when making decisions and depend on the environmental cues and surrounding evidence unrelated to the central route of the arguments (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986; Bhattacherjee and Sanford, 2006; Lowry et al., 2012).
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Moderating effect of the type of brand on the belief-attitude-behaviour model

Moderating effect of the type of brand on the belief-attitude-behaviour model

One of the limitations of this work is that the research was conducted only in Mexico; a broader study among other emerging markets, or worldwide, is suggested for generalisation of the results (Steenkamp et al. 2003). In addition, this study included only 12 brands in different consumer product categories; a wider study, including a larger number of brands and product categories, is also suggested (Özsomer 2012). Additional research is also suggested to explore the clarity, credibility and perceived risks derived from glocal brands and compare it with local or global, previously categorised from consumers’ perspective. Furthermore, in this research we did not take into consideration consumer’s personality. Consumer’s personality could be relevant when analysing the moderating effect of the type of brand, thus future research might
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The Moderating Effect of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship of MIS and School Performance in Pakistan

The Moderating Effect of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship of MIS and School Performance in Pakistan

This study intends to verify the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between Management information systems (MIS) and school performance in Pakistan. In the previous studies review of the theories explaining the role of Management information systems (MIS) on boosting corporate performance were conducted. Past research has shown that the Management information system (MIS) has provided facts that are related to information on the effects of several factors on performance, output rate on workers. This paper will also look at the meaning and benefits of a management information system. The types of management information system will also be discussed in this research. This study will further reveal more information on the MIS ability to bring about a higher degree of performance in schools. It will also suggest some features of MIS with a direct impact on schools, job satisfaction, and performance in Pakistan.
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The Moderating Effect of Gender on Adaptive Coping Mechanisms and Financial Stress

The Moderating Effect of Gender on Adaptive Coping Mechanisms and Financial Stress

This study has revealed that there is a very high financial stress among private university students in Ghana, and they have a high adaptive coping mechanism. Furthermore, most of the students use emotion-focus than problem-focus coping mechanisms in managing their financial stress. Also there is a moderate positive significant association between financial stress and adaptive coping mechanism. However, this adaptive coping mechanism could predict financial stress by 11.65%. Finally, there is a significant enhancing moderating effect of gender on adaptive coping mechanisms and financial stress. Whereas, with time the males' financial stress decrease based on their adaptive coping mechanism, the females must have an increasing coping mechanism in managing their financial stress. The study recommends that future researchers should investigate the outstanding 88.35% of variables which could predict the financial stress of private university students in Ghana.
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Diagnostic and Interactive Uses of Budgets and the Moderating Effect of Strategic Uncertainty.

Diagnostic and Interactive Uses of Budgets and the Moderating Effect of Strategic Uncertainty.

The existing literature suggests that under certain environmental conditions control systems such as budgets can be effective only if they are used interactively. However, empirical evidence to support such a proposition is scant. This study examines the moderating effect of strategic uncertainty on the effectiveness of budgets when used as (a) a diagnostic control system; and (b) an interactive control system. In examining these relationships, the intervening role of individual motivation is also considered. Findings based on the data gathered from a questionnaire survey of large and medium size public sector organisations in Australia confirm that while diagnostic use of budgets is more effective in motivating individual performance under low strategic uncertainty, interactive use of budgets is more effective when strategic uncertainty is high. This study contributes to both the theory and practice.
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Moderating Effect of Socioeconomic Status on the Relationship between Health Cognitions and Behaviors

Moderating Effect of Socioeconomic Status on the Relationship between Health Cognitions and Behaviors

relationship for self-reported physical activity, such that this relationship was stronger in the better educated group. Godin et al. argued that this may be attributable to education influencing people’s ability to translate their intention into action. Godin et al. (5) also showed this moderation effect to be mediated by the temporal stability of intention, i.e., lower stability of intention in lower educated groups. That intention remains stable from when measured to when behavior is assessed is a limiting condition of the TPB (31, 35). Several studies have shown stable intentions to be more predictive of behavior (36). Sheeran et al. (37) showed that intention stability explained the moderating effect of other variables (e.g., anticipated regret) on the intention-behavior relationship. The mediated moderation findings of Godin et al. (5) suggest that differences in the stability of intentions might account for any moderating effect of SES on the intention-behavior relationship.
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Talent Management and Competitive Advantage: The Moderating Effect of Knowledge Integration

Talent Management and Competitive Advantage: The Moderating Effect of Knowledge Integration

This study aimed to achieve two main purposes, the first one is to discuss and empirically tested the relationship between talent management and competitive advantage. All hypotheses concerning this purpose were supported which indicates significant effect of talent management on competitive advantage (speed in respond to market, product /service quality , innovation speed ) the second purpose was to investigate the moderating effect of knowledge integration on the relationship between talent management and competitive advantage, the results have support for knowledge integration as a significant mediator in the relationship between talent management and competitive advantage.
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KNOWLEDGE ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY AND PROCESS INNOVATION: THE MODERATING EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMISM

KNOWLEDGE ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY AND PROCESS INNOVATION: THE MODERATING EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMISM

The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the relationship between firms’ innovation performance and absorptive capacity by taking into consideration absorptive capacity as a multidimensional, dynamic construct consisting of organizational knowledge-processing capabilities in the form of knowledge acquisition, dissemination and utilization. Furthermore, this study examined the moderating effect of environmental dynamism on the relationship between firms’ absorptive capacity and innovation performance. It is a wide known fact that knowledge represents a critical resource to create value and to develop as well as sustain competitive advantages (Teece et al., 1997). However, rapidly changing environments and rules of competitiveness exacerbate the challenges organizations face in their knowledge-processing capabilities such as knowledge creation (Camisón & Forés, 2010). Thus, examining the role of environmental dynamism as a contingency factor would provide a closer understanding on how firms respond in dynamic or turbulent environment versus more stable or stagnant environment.
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The Moderating Effect Of Decision-Maker On The Relationship Between Strategy And Organizational Structure

The Moderating Effect Of Decision-Maker On The Relationship Between Strategy And Organizational Structure

This study has yielded a high empirical validity for its theoretical model that was to establish; the moderating effect of the decision-maker in the relationship between strategy and organization structures. Accordingly, the assumption held within the structure-contingency model that the linkage between strategy and structure is logical and direct is no longer tenable. Thus the inevitable conclusion of the study is that the organization structure is an outcome of the decision maker’s choice. The consequence of this conclusion is that when designing organization structure it is imperative to consider the decision maker(s) and decision making process. Those who have the power to direct organizations ultimate take the call on structure. Thus, the study advances the cause for complementing structure-contingency framework with the strategic choice approach in designing organization structure and future studies. The strategic choice approach which argues that the process of structuring an organization is fundamentally a decision problem finds empirical support in this study.
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Work Locus of Control and Workplace Bullying: The Moderating Effect of Work Centrality

Work Locus of Control and Workplace Bullying: The Moderating Effect of Work Centrality

This study examined the moderating effect of work centrality on work locus of control and workplace bullying. A total of two hundred and forty-one (241) participants were selected and used as participants in the study. A 10-item Work Centrality Questionnaire (WCQ) designed by Paullay et al., (1994), 16-item Work Locus of Control Scale designed by Paul E. Spector (1988) and the 22-item Workplace Bullying Questionnaire which was designed by Einarsen & Hoel (2001) were used to measure the variables. Result showed that there is a significant effect of work locus of control on workplace bullying and that employee with external locus of control orientation perceived higher workplace bullying than employees with internal locus of control. There is a significant effect of work centrality on workplace bullying, with employees that are high in work centrality reporting lesser experience of workplace bullying. A significant sex difference in work centrality was also observed but there are no significant sex difference in work locus of control and bullying. Finally, we found that work centrality moderate the effect of work locus of control on work place bullying. Implications of our findings are discussed.
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B2C E-Commerce Acceptance: The Moderating Effect of Gender

B2C E-Commerce Acceptance: The Moderating Effect of Gender

The objective of this paper is to test the moderating effect of gender on e-purchasing behaviour. With this aim, we analyse a group of e-customers (males and females) with experience in online shopping through an extended Technology Acceptance Model. The results obtained show that there are significant differences derived from gender e- customer. The attitude of males has a greater influence on their intention to purchase online. Females give more importance to the effect of ease of use on attitude. The most important perceptions, self-efficacy and perceived usefulness, are the same in the behaviour of any e-customer.
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Federal Regulation, Job Creation, and the Moderating Effect of State Economic Freedom

Federal Regulation, Job Creation, and the Moderating Effect of State Economic Freedom

To better understand the moderating effect of regional economic freedom, we plot the marginal effects of regulation on net job creation at various levels of economic freedom along with 95 percent confidence intervals in Figure 1. The vertical axis denotes the effect on the number of jobs created on net whereas the horizontal axis denotes the quality of economic freedom; note that we restrict the action and prediction to the range of our sample rather than the range of the index (zero to ten) to avoid extrapolation. The figure illustrates that regulation has a more adverse effect on net job creation when economic freedom is lower. At the bottom of the economic freedom distribution (EF = 5), a one percent increase in regulation is associated with 20 fewer net jobs created ceteris paribus. However, in regions where economic freedom exceeds the average level (EF > 7), a one percent increase in regulation is associated with virtually no decrease in net jobs created. In fact, the effect of regulation is not statistically and significantly different from zero based on the standard 95 percent confidence interval at above-average levels of economic freedom.
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The moderating effect of logic in the learning of C++ computer programming using screencasting

The moderating effect of logic in the learning of C++ computer programming using screencasting

In terms of interaction effect between the students’ logic levels and their learning modes on  learning  C++  computer  programming,  the  results  showed  that  there  was  no  significant  interaction  effect in both of the learning modes. This means that learning C++ computer programming via the SN  mode, which has been shown to be more effective than that of the STN mode, is not moderated by  the students’ logic levels. Even though having a non‐significant result, the mean for C++ Computer  Programming Posttest score for the screencast and narration (SN) group, regardless of the students’  level  of  logic  is  higher  compared  to  the  mean  for  the  screencast,  text,  and  narration  (STN)  group.  Moreover,  there  is  an  overall  increase  of  mean  in  both  of  the  learning  modes  regardless  of  the  students’ level of logic. The outcome might be due to the ability of screencasting in supporting the  understanding  of  logic  reasoning  in  learning  computer  programming  flow.  Furthermore,  reason  behind of the higher mean achieved by the students’ in the SN mode probably due to the effectiveness  of Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning design in balancing the working memory between  audio and visual channel. 
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CEO Overconfidence and Fair Value Reporting-the Moderating Effect of Corporate Governance

CEO Overconfidence and Fair Value Reporting-the Moderating Effect of Corporate Governance

This paper considers four proxies for corporate governance score (CG_SCORE) as following: BD_IND is the proportion of independent directors on the board (Bradbury et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2007; Osma, 2008; Visvanathan, 2008; Garven, 2009; Shiue, Lin, & Liu, 2009). The CEO/Chair Duality (NODUAL), which is a dummy variable that equals one if the CEO does not serve as the board chair, and zero otherwise (Davidson et al., 2005; Bradbury et al., 2006). The average tenure of board members (BD_TEN), measured as the average years of service of board members (Garven, 2009; Shiue et al., 2009). Outside directorships (BD_DIR), measured as the average number of outside directorships held by board members (Garven, 2009). The four measures are converted to percentile scores from which an index, CG_SCORE, is then constructed to capture the combined effect of these factors. CG_SCORE equals the average of these four percentile values. The variable of high corporate governance (HI_CG) equals one if the corporate governance score (CG_SCORE) of the firm is above the median score for the sample, and zero otherwise.
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Exploring the Moderating Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on the Finance-Growth Nexus in Africa?

Exploring the Moderating Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on the Finance-Growth Nexus in Africa?

It can be observed from the above that finance needs entrepreneurship to positively affect growth. Unfortunately, the discourse on the finance-growth connection has been done with a rebuttable presumption that availability of funds automatically guarantees economic growth. It is the considered view of this paper that availability of funds is a necessary but not sufficient condition for economic growth. The funds mobilized by the financial sector must be productively utilized by entrepreneurs for an economy to grow. This postulation is encapsulated in the position of Schumpeter (1911) which has become the fulcrum around which most of the wheels of empirical scrutiny of the finance-growth nexus revolve. Consequently, this paper develops an interactive model in which the level of entrepreneurial activity is treated as moderating variable, moderating the finance-growth nexus. The intuition is that as the financial sector (which in this paper is represented by the banking sector) provides more funds to multiples of entrepreneurs that result in the establishment of more productive businesses, all things being equal, the economy is likely to experience growth.
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Effect of Trustworthiness of Internet Merchants on Consumer Trust in Online Shopping with the Moderating Effect of Perceived Risk

Effect of Trustworthiness of Internet Merchants on Consumer Trust in Online Shopping with the Moderating Effect of Perceived Risk

Cronbachs Alpha value >0.7 shows that the scale is reliable and valid. Table 5 : Correlation coefficient matrix. Correlations PR ITM CTIS PR 1 ITM .635 ** 1 CTIS .634 ** .776 ** 1 *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Correlation Analysis was used to confirm existence of relationship between the independent variables i.e. Trustworthiness of Internet Merchants and the dependent variable i.e. Customer trust in online shopping. The correlation Analysis shows highly significant positive relationship between Trustworthiness of Internet Merchants and the dependent variable i.e. Customer trust in online shopping. Our HI is (Trust Worthiness of Internet Merchants strongly effect the Online customer trust.) is accepted. Perceived Risk is also playing a moderating role between trustworthiness of internet merchants and consumer trust in online shopping. Because for moderator significant relationship is found in correlation analysis therefore our second supposition, H2 (Perceived Risk plays the moderating role between trustworthiness of internet merchants and consumer trust on online trust) is accepted. Table 6 Descriptive statistics Construct Mean (Standard Deviation) Perceived Risk 2.8418 (.97618)
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Lean Production and Business Performance: The Moderating Effect of the Length of Lean Adoption

Lean Production and Business Performance: The Moderating Effect of the Length of Lean Adoption

Today‟s era of global competition has created intense challenges for manufacturing companies. Manufacturing companies that do not keep up with lean production would lose out to competitors. Manufacturing companies do not only compete on prices but also on who would first introduce new technological, creative, innovative and high quality products to enable them to be market leaders and ultimately gain higher profits. Lean production has the potential to assist the organization in achieving both cost minimization and value maximization ([9] [10] [16][3] [5]). Many researchers claim that lean production can result in better performance ([9] [10] [4] [3]), but very few empirical studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of lean production on business performance. Most importantly, it is also interesting to investigate whether the length of lean adoption plays a significant moderating role in that relationship.
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