Magnetic levitation is the levitating process of an object by using magnetic field as the source of energy. Magnetic levitation also known as Maglev is one of the advanced technology that become phenomena that fascinated people to study about it especially in transportation industry. It is works based on magnetic attraction or repulsion in order to maintain the gap between two positions. The aim of this project is want to develop experimental set up of singleaxis magnetic attraction force. Besides that, the other purpose of this project is to experiment the behaviour of attraction force for the developed experimental setup. This project only covers the fundamental of singleaxis magnetic attraction force that can be implementing in high speed transportation and magnetic suspension. Besides that, this project wants to test the behaviour of the attraction force between two parameters which are current and distance. This project also tests the attraction force that occurs between the winding and the metal ball. From this project we can conclude that when the amount of current is directly proportional to the distance. When the distance was increased, the amount of current to attract the metal ball also increased
A combination of 4 channel and 8 channel data acquisition module with a total of 12 channel input was used for the field testing as shown in figure 1(a). Groundborne vibration monitoring should be carried out using accelerometers  (Bsi, 2014). Nowadays, the use of Piezoelectric (ICP) accelerometer is preferable by researcher for field monitoring or laboratory testing [1, 5, 8, 14]. For the research, ICP Accelerometer was selected for both singleaxis and triaxial accelerometer with sensitivity 10.2 mV/(m/s 2 ) as shown in figure 1(b). The singleaxis accelerometer was used to measure vertical axis, Z-
LDR or light dependent resistor has been chosen as the sensor because LDR is commonly used in sun tracking system. This is because LDR is sensitive to the light. The resistance of LDR will decreases with increasing incident light intensity . For the controller, PIC16F877A had been chosen. This PIC programming will give the pulse to the driver to move the motor. For the driver, bi-directional DC motor control using relay has been used. The motor controller had been chosen because it can control the motor to rotate clockwise and counter-clockwise easily. DC geared motor also been Abstract: Solar power generation had been used as a renewable energy since years ago. Residential that uses solar power as their alternative power supply will bring benefits to them. The main objective of this paper is to present development of an automatic solar tracking system whereby the system will caused solar panels will keep aligned with the Sunlight in order to maximize in harvesting solar power. The system focuses on the controller design whereby it will caused the system is able to tracks the maximum intensity of Sunlight is hit. When the intensity of Sunlight is decreasing, this system automatically changes its direction to get maximum intensity of Sunlight. LDR light detector acts as a sensor is used to trace the coordinate of the Sunlight by detecting brightness level of Sunlight. While to rotate the appropriate position of the panel, a DC-geared motor is used. The system is controlled by two relays as a DC-geared motor driver and a microcontroller as a main processor. This project is covered for a singleaxis and is designed for low power and residential usage applications. From the hardware testing, the system is able to track and follow the Sunlight intensity in order to get maximum solar power at the output regardless motor speed.
Solar powered equipment works best when pointed at or near the sun, so a solar tracker can increase the effectiveness of such equipment over any fixed position, at the cost of additional system complexity. Solar trackers may be active or passive and may be singleaxis or dual axis. Singleaxis trackers usually use a polar mount for maximum solar efficiency.
Abstract: A 2-mW Single Pass Backward Signal (SPBS) Superfluorescent Fiber source (SFS) having a spectral width of 25.667nm was developed at a pump wavelength of 980.5 nm and presented the experimental results along with non-flattened ASE spectrum. The SFS has been packed into a small volume space of 100mm X 100mm X 15mm. The Fibre Source has application in singleaxis fibre gyroscope for missile. The fiber source was developed using all commercially available components.
In Malaysia, solar photovoltaic (PV) system is still lack of consciousness among the nations. There are a lot of researches regarding the solar PV system around the world. However, the solar PV system is still new in Malaysia. Solar tracking system is added into the solar PV system in order to harvest more solar energy. The solar tracking system will track the sun throughout the day. The solar tracking system technology is still not well- known in Malaysia because there is lack of expertise in this field. Oversea expert is required during performing the installation and maintenance on the solar tracking system. Therefore, the laboratory-scale singleaxis solar tracking system is designed. It can be used as a basic or start-up tool for the researcher and educator to deepen their knowledge in the solar tracking system technology.
Previous studies examining gyroscopic stabilizers have discussed identification of platform systems, stabilizer design, evaluation of the application of these platforms in different industries, and determination of test and evaluation methods.  is about designing controller for an electromechanical actuator with time delay. In this article the captured data, related to several test sets at different conditions for system identification, were used for model estimation and validation purposes. In , authors address three main topics; experimental identification, uncertainty modeling, and robust control design for a real EMA harmonic drive system. In this article, the linear model of the harmonic drive system is identified based on the test data. The captured data, related to several test sets at different conditions, were used for model estimation and validation purposes. In , a comparative study of adaptive vibration control approaches is presented for the system identification for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) z-axis gyroscope. In  and , the structure and operation of inertial stabilized platforms were studied. In these articles, the equations of motion related to these platforms were also fully discussed. Researchers in  specifically studied the direct and indirect stabilization of imaging system in two axis platforms and the performance of these two methods were also discussed and compared to each other. The present study modeled a sample gyroscopic single-axis force stabilizer and obtained the equations necessary to model and simulate the stabilizer. The structure of the gyroscopic single- axis force stabilizer was simulated using SIMULINK in MATLAB to allow evaluation of its behavior and performance
The customer for this proof of concept project is the Cal Poly. This encompasses educating students on different single-axis tracking algorithms as well as providing students and faculty a method to quickly and easily test a variety of ways to track the sun to maximize solar power output. The customers will use this project to find a low-cost, low-maintenance engineering solution to test for maximum power output in a laboratory setting – specifically to address issues like inter-row shading. This kind of shading causes massive decreases in output power generation. Shading often terminates entire bottom rows of cells, which drastically minimizes power output in series-connected panels. Inter-row shading is currently one of the largest causes of reduced power output at the Cal Poly Solar Farm and many solar farms nationwide .
To increment the motor, there were several different single-axis solar tracking techniques that the circuit could have employed. It could have tracked the sun actively or as an estimate. A circuit designed to estimate the path of the sun in the sky could utilize a simple timer: turning the heliostat a full 180 degrees over the course of a 12 hour day. While this would work to move the heliostat in the general area of the sun, it would require calculating the exact increment that the motor would need to move the array in the precise degrees required. However, if the circuit had sensors to detect the sunlight there would be feedback telling the motor when it had turned enough. For this reason, sensors were used for tracking the sun.
In order to make a comparison between the performance of fixed and single-axis tracking systems as two popular mounting structures, a fixed PV system with 2.4 kW nominal power and a 2.4 kW vertical-axis (east-west) tracking system have been surveyed. Both systems are grid- connected, both have been built on the same location and use similar solar panels and inverters. The systems are built in city of Mashhad in the northeast of Iran. Both systems have 12 similar monocrystalline solar panels connected in a single string and a 2500 W grid-connected solar inverter. The output power, energy injected into the grid and irradiance have been monitored in 1 minute sequences over a one year period from July 2016 to July 2017. As  stated, evaluation of PVsyst results has shown to be within the predictable range of error compared to measured data, if the simulations are carried out in a one-year period. Shorter simulation terms lead to less accurate results.
Abstract: The sun is the most abundant source of renewable energy available on the earth. It provides enough energy in an hour to be used by the world for a whole year. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the finest ways to capitalize the solar energy. Generally quiescent solar panels are used for harnessing the solar energy. Therefore, this paper includes the simulation, modeling procedures and results of a singleaxis solar tracking PV system prototype. The simulation of the tracking system has been provided using schematic modeling in proteus software. For compact size and reliability of the required circuits, PCB designing has been carried out in Eagle software. For controlling operations of the hardware, arduino is programmed and installed. For the prototype implementation, the design and construction of a microcontroller-based solar panel tracking system is also used. In this paper, the microcontroller named ‘Arduino UNO (Atmega 328)’ is utilized to give the signal to the motor that will move the solar panel along with the sun to gain maximum sunlight angle. A comparative report between the voltage output of the static solar panel and the singleaxis solar tracking system is also presented.
One type of electromagnetic fields, based on frequency range, is Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) fields. There are lots of reports about measuring ELF-magnetic field (MF) in substations, power plants, cities and etc. This study aimed to compare the difference between measurement of three-axis and single-axis probe MF meters. ELF-MF was measured by TES-1394 MF tester (three-axis probe) and HI-3604 ELF survey meter (single-axis probe) in selected power plant and the resultant of three MF components (X, Y, and Z) was calculated based on equation. Field measurement was based on IEEE std 644-1994. In the generator building, minimum, maximum, and mean values of the magnetic flux density measured by the three-axis device were greater than those measured by the other two methods. Besides, the maximum value of the resultant method was greater compared to the measurements related to the other two methods, but the means of magnetic flux density by the three-axis device was greater than the resultant and maximum axis value. However, a significant difference was found between the maximum axis value and the results of the three-axis device (P=0.022). The best and most reliable way to measure MF is using a device with a three-axis probe and measuring the maximum MF by the singe-axis device cannot be reliable. Moreover, in the absence of a device with a three-axis probe, if there is a single-axis probe, the best we can do is obtaining the resultant from the three directions of the field.
The interactions between cylindrical magnets are established by multiple integrals in polar coordinates. In this paper, we use new approximation to solve this problem. For calculating the magnetic ﬁeld created by cylindrical magnets, analytical expressions will be proposed by us. The expressions can be used to calculate the force between two sets of magnets in a computationally eﬃcient way. Also, these analytical expressions will be used to evaluate the magnetic interactions in cylindrical linear singleaxis-actuator.
Abstract: Solar energy is rapidly gaining ground as an important mean of expanding renewable energy use. Solar tracking is employed in order to maximize collected solar radiation by a photovoltaic panel. In this paper we present a prototype for Automatic solar tracker that is designed using Arduino UNO with Wind sensor to Cease Wind effect on panels if wind speed exceeds certain threshold. The Proposed solar track er tracks the location of the sun anywhere in any time by calculating the position of the sun. For producing the maximum amount of solar energy, a solar panel must always be perpendicular to the source of light. Because the sun motion plane varies daily and during the day it moves from east to west; one needs two axis tracking to follow the sun's position. Maximum possible power is collected when two axis tracking is done. However, two axis tracking is relatively costly and complex. A compromise between maximum power collection and system simplicity is obtained by singleaxis tracking where the plane (North south axis) is fixed while the east west motion is accomplished. This work deals with the design of both single and two axis tracking systems. Automatic trackers is also compared to Fixed one in terms of Energy generated, Efficiency, Cost and System reliability.
ABSTRACT: A shape change in the wing at cruise has the potential to improve the Aerodynamic performance and Morphing on UAV is a challenging task. In recent years many researchers are working on the inventions in the field of morphing wing using hydraulics, electromechanical and smart material based actuation concepts and architecture. In this work the concept for actuating wing UAV design for singleaxis morphing has been addressed for the selected model for in-plane shape change. The sweep change mechanism has been adopted and analysed.
FabienneSallaberryet al. (2015) have proposed a procedure to characterize the accuracy of the singleaxis solar tracker. Positioning angle error of a parabolic trough collector is estimated directly and the angular tracking error of 0.4 with average optical loss of 0.317%is found. A singleaxis three position (1A-3P) low-cost sun tracker is tested by the Bin-Juine Huang et al. (2013) for south, southeast and south west orientation. It is observed that the energy loss of 1A-3P PV system due to misalignment of South is negligible and energy loss of 4.42-6.82% and 4.31-6.79% for southeast and southwest orientations.
In the present work a singleaxis MEMS accelerometer with piezoresistive sensing and z axis as sensing axis has been designed. The designed sensor consists of a proof mass suspended by four thin flexures along x and y directions that are fixed to an outer frame which in turn is fixed to the system whose acceleration has to be measured. The frame moves with the whole structure when it accelerates whereas the proof mass tries to remain in its previous position due to inherent inertia and in the process gets deflected up / down in accordance to the direction of the motion of the system. These results in to a stress developed between the frame and proof mass ends on each of the flexures. To measure these stress piezoresistors are implanted at maximum stress points towards the fixed end sides on each flexure.
The accelerometer used in this project was the MMA8452Q Triple Axis Accelerometer Breakout from Sparkfun. The MMA8452Q (detailed in the datasheet ) is a commonly used accelerometer IC, the breakout board includes supporting components and pads to connect to other devices. The device is well documented and this project utilizes libraries written by Sparkfun to easily read data from it as utilized in the reference guide . The accelerometer is powered by a 3.3V source, and communicates with a microcontroller through I2C. It includes an SDA and SCL pin for the I2C data protocol. Due to the orientation the accelerometer is mounted to the motor output shaft, the Z axis is used as the measurement direction. To measure an angle, the accelerometer measures the current acceleration in Gs using the function “getCalculatedZ()” in the library. This returns a value that ranges from -1 to 1 given that there are no non-
The mirrored parabolic trough as a whole will reflect direct sunlight along one axis, the focus. In this focus, a receiver is placed with PV cells. These are made of special materials called semiconductors such as silicon, which is currently used most commonly (HowStuffWorks, 2010). Basically, when light strikes the cell, a certain portion of the radiation is absorbed within the semiconductor material. This means that the energy of the absorbed light is transferred to the semiconductor. The energy knocks electrons loose, allowing them to flow freely. PV cells also have one or more electric fields that act to the force electrons, freed by light absorption, to flow in a certain direction. This flow of electrons is a current, and by placing metal contacts on the top and bottom of the PV cell, it’s possible to draw that current off for external use. This current, together with the cell's voltage (which is a result of its built-in electric field or fields), defines the power (or wattage) that the solar cell can produce. This direct current (D.C.) is inverted by a power conditioning/inverter into alternating current (A.C.), so it can be directly used or added tot the electricity grid. A special control system heads al the electricity flows.