exchanger is carried out. While going through the process we have to predict the performance of STHE. The process solving in simulation consist of modeling and meshing the basic geometry of shell and tubeheatexchanger using Computational Fluid Dynamics Package using ANSYS 13.0. The slaying of heatexchanger is carried out by using the package CFD with FLUENT and after that it is compared to the existing performed values. After this an attempt has been made to know the performance of the heatexchanger by taking into account the helix baffles instead of the so used steady Segmental Baffles and hence the result so obtained has to be compared. The performance parameters related to heatexchanger like effectiveness, overall heat transfer coefficient, energy extraction rate etc., has to be reported in this work. The intent of this project is to contrive the shelltubeheatexchanger with helical baffle and then study the flow and temperature field inside the shell. This type of heatexchanger contains seven tubes of diameter 20 mm and the shell length consists of 600 mm long and the diameter 90 mm. the helixes angle ranges from 0 0 to 20 0 . Here the
The tests were performed for the engine parameters including the operating range used in the real operation in road conditions. The authors selected the parameters based on their own experience. To give the full picture of the operating conditions of the generator the measurements were taken in the load characteristics conditions at selected engine speeds, allowing the operation of the heatexchanger in the broad loading range (20-120 Nm).
From the vibration analysis of STHE it is found that the tube length has major impact on shell acoustic frequency, the tube natural frequency, bundle cross flow, critical velocity, vortex shedding ratio. From Table 2 and Fig- ure 3 to Figure 7, it can be concluded that up to mid span of the tube (i.e. 500 cm) the tube natural frequency, bundle cross flow, critical velocity, and vortex shedding ratio are gradually increasing & then decreases up to the end of tube length. Also, the mechanisms of flow-in- duced vibration are studied and the several main mecha- nisms are introduced. We finally come to the conclusion that the main parameter which largely affects the vibra- tions caused due to flow are dependent on unsupported tube length and varies at various locations across the tube length as unsupported tube length varies. The various other parameters which affect the flow induced vibration are critical velocity, natural frequency of tubes, cross- flow velocity and acoustic frequency.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a computer-based simulation method for analysing fluid flow, heat transfer, and related phenomena such as chemical reactions. This project uses CFD for analysis of flow and heat transfer (not for analysis of chemical reactions). Some examples of application areas are: aerodynamic lift and drag (i.e. airplanes or windmill wings), power plant combustion, chemical processes, heating/ventilation, and even biomedical engineering (simulating blood flow through arteries and veins). CFD analyses carried out in the various industries are used in R&D and manufacture of aircraft, combustion engines, as well as many other industrial products.
Compared to correlation based methods, the use of CFD in heatexchangerdesign is limited. CFD can be used both in the rating, and iteratively in the sizing of heat exchangers. It can be particularly useful in the initial design steps, reducing the number of tested prototypes and providing a good insight in the transport phenomena occurring in the heat exchangers . To be able to run a successful full CFD simulation for a detailed heatexchanger model, large amounts of computing power and computer memory as well as long computation times are required. Without any simplification, an industrial shell and tubeheatexchanger with 500 tubes and 10 baffles would require at least 150 million computational elements, to resolve the geometry . It is not possible to model such geometry by using an ordinary computer. To overcome that difficulty, in the previous works, large scale shell-and-tubeheat exchangers are modeled by using some simplifications. The commonly used simplifications are the porous medium model and the distributed resistance approach. Shell-and-tubeheat exchangers can be modeled using distributed resistance approach . By using this method, a single computational cell may have multiple tubes; therefore, shell side of the heatexchanger can be modeled by relatively coarse grid. Kao et al  developed a multidimensional, thermal-hydraulic model in which shell side was modeled using volumetric porosity, surface permeability and distributed resistance methods. In all of these simplified approaches, the shell side pressure drop and heat transfer rate results showed good agreement with experimental data.
Hari Haran  proposed a simplified model for the study of thermal analysis of shell and tube type heat exchangers of water and oil type is proposed. The robustness and medium weighted shape of Shell and Tubeheat exchangers make them well suited for high pressure operations. This paper shows how to do the thermal analysis by using theoretical formulae and for this they have chosen a practical problem of counter flow shell and tubeheatexchanger of water and oil type, by using the data that come from theoretical formulae they designed a model of shell and tubeheatexchanger using Pro-E and done the thermal analysis by using ANSYS software and comparing the result that obtained from ANSYS software and theoretical formulae. For simplification of theoretical calculations they have also done a C code which is useful for calculating the thermal analysis of a counter flow of water-oil type shell and tubeheatexchanger. The result after comparing both was that they were getting an error of 0.0274 in effectiveness.
A numerical analysis is done on sizing of triple tubeheatexchanger. During this analysis they compared triple tubeheatexchanger with double tubeheatexchanger for same heat transfer rate. For this, all input parameter same for both heatexchanger. It was found that length of triple tubeheatexchanger was less as compared with double pipe heatexchanger. The analysis can be used for determining the dimension size of triple tubeheatexchanger. It is also concluded that the triple pipe heatexchanger provide better heat transfer efficiencies per unit length of heatexchanger as compared to double pipe heatexchanger (Tejas Ghiwala, et al, 2014) . A computational simulation of triple tubeheatexchanger is carried out &found that heat transfer occurring between three fluids at different temperature. They assumed that outer tube is thermally isolated from surrounding. It is considered as hot water in middle space which cold water and normal water in inner and outer space. Different graphs showing variation of temperature with variousparameters such as length, Reynolds number etc. Finally it is found that heat transfer most likely or predominantly takes place between hot fluid and cold fluid because of the greater temperature difference between them irrespective of mass flow rate (Vishwa M. Bahera, et al, 2014) .
ABSTRACT: Performance monitoring system for shell and tubeheatexchanger is developed using Mamdani Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (M-ANFIS). Experiments are conducted based on full factorial design of experiments to develop a model using the parameters such as temperatures and flow rates. M-ANFIS model for overall heat transfer coefficient of a design /clean heatexchanger system is developed. The developed model is validated and tested by comparing the results with the experimental results. This model is used to assess the performance of heatexchanger with the real/fouled system. The performance degradation is expressed using fouling factor (FF), which is derived from the overall heat transfer coefficient of design system and real system. Hybrid algorithm is the hot issue in Computational Intelligence (CI) study. From in-depth discussion on Simulation Mechanism Based (SMB) classification method and composite patterns, this paper presents the Mamdani model based Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (M-ANFIS) and weight updating formula in consideration with qualitative representation of inference consequent parts in fuzzy neural networks. M-ANFIS model adopts Mamdani fuzzy inference system which has advantages in consequent part. Experiment results of applying M-ANFIS to evaluate Reliable Performance Assessment of HeatExchanger show that M-ANFIS, as a new hybrid algorithm in computational intelligence, has great advantages in non-linear modeling, membership functions in consequent parts, scale of training data and amount of adjusted parameters. This paper proposes a new perspective and methodology to model the fouling factor (FF) of the heatexchanger using the fuzzy reliability theory. We propose to use the indicator or performance or substitute variable which is very well understood by the power plant engineer to fuzzify the states of heatexchanger.
Abstract— A heatexchanger is a device, which transfer internal thermal energy between two or more fluids at different temperature. Without this essential piece of equipment most industrial process would be impossible. Heat exchangers are widely used in refrigeration air conditioning, and chemical plants. They can be employed in various uses, for instance, to effectively transmit heat from one fluid to the other. Shell-and-tubeheat exchangers (STHXs) are widely applied in various industrial fields such as petroleum refining, power generation and chemical process, etc. Tremendous efforts have been made to improve the performances on the tube side.In this project experimental performance is done on the fixed designed STHX and calculate the heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness. Validation is to be carried out using which gives the result comparison with that of experimental result.Here flow parameters are not varied but size and number of tubes are varied and best efficient model is selected as Optimized value. 3 different number of tubes are used with same shell size remaining same. 40 tubes , 32 tubes and 36 tubes were tried . It's been observed for same input temperatures and mass flow rates for three different models one with 36 tubes , 32 tubes model &other with 40 tubes, the temperature variation in 36 tubes is more and also requires less tubes compared to 40 tube model. so it is more effective than tubes model.
This model can also be improved by using Nusselt number and Reynolds stress model, but with higher computational theory. Furthermore the enhance wall function are not use in this project, but they can be very useful. The heat transfer is poor because most of the fluid passes without the interaction with baffles. Thus the design can be modified for better heat transfer in two ways either the decreasing the shell diameter, so that it will be a proper contact with the baffle or by increasing the baffle so that baffles will be proper contact with the shell. It is because the heat transfer area is not utilized efficiently. So We can seen that when angle of inclination baffle will be increased then heat transferred we found that maximum. Here we use 10⁰ and 20⁰ degree inclination angle with baffles and 20⁰ degree inclination baffles we found maximum heat transfer compare to 10⁰ degree inclination of baffles.
This model can likewise be enhanced by utilizing Nusselt number and Reynolds push model, yet with higher computational hypothesis. Besides the upgrade divider work are not use in this undertaking, but rather they can be exceptionally valuable. The heat exchange is poor in light of the fact that a large portion of the fluid goes without the cooperation with baffles. In this way the design can be altered for better heat move in two different ways either the diminishing the shell measurement, so it will be a legitimate contact with the baffle or by expanding the baffle so baffles will be appropriate contact with the shell. It is on the grounds that the heat exchange territory isn't used proficiently. So We can seen that when edge of inclination baffle will be expanded at that point heat exchanged we found that most extreme. Here we use 90⁰, 30⁰ and 45⁰ degree inclination edge with baffles and 45⁰ degree inclination baffles we discovered least disturbance esteem contrast with 90⁰ degree and 30⁰ degree inclination of baffles.
Abstract— The importance of mini shell and tubeheat exchangers (STHEs) in industrial and other engineering applications cannot be underestimated. Hence, based on the problems associated with the design of STHEs, a mini STHE was developed for transfer of heat between two fluids without mixing on the laboratory scale using locally available materials and technology based on an optimized LMTD technique. The performance of the heatexchanger was assessed and evaluated to determine the optimum combination of designparameters. Copper was utilized for the tube side fluid due to its higher thermal conductivity and anti-microbial property, while galvanized steel was used for the shell side fluid due to its cost and corrosion resistance. Parametric studies were carried out on STHE designparameters to obtain an optimal design for efficiency and effectiveness after relevant design considerations. Experimental results were validated with quantitative models, and it was discovered that both Dell- Belaware and Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) approaches produced the optimal results required for the selection of shell side and tube fluid film coefficients, respectively over other correlations. In conclusion, the values of parameters of interest were also presented after rigorous mathematical calculations at optimal level and probable recommendations were later made.
Baffles are used to increase the fluid velocity by diverting the flow across the tube bundle to obtain higher transfer co- efficient. The distance between adjacent baffles is called baffle-spacing. The baffle spacing of 0.2 to 1 times of the inside shell diameter is commonly used. Baffles are held in positioned by means of baffle spacers. Closer baffle spacing gives greater transfer co-efficient by inducing higher turbulence. The pressure drop is more with closer baffle spacing. The various types of baffles are shown in Figure In case of cut- segmental baffle, a segment (called baffle cut) is removed to form the baffle expressed as a percentage of the baffle diameter. Baffle cuts from 15 to 45% are normally used. A baffle cut of 20 to 25% provide a good heat- transfer with the reasonable pressure drop. The % cut for segmental baffle refers to the cut away height from its diameter. Figure also shows two other types of baffles.
A heatexchanger is an instrument used to transfer heat from one medium to another by segregating them to prevent mixing or allowing them to mix and transfer the heat. One such example of an exchanger which prevents the mixing of the tubeheatexchanger. There are multiple types of shell and tubeheat exchangers based on their geometrical parameters. However for the present analysis, a has been used. The varioustube side of a SHTX consists of the inlet nozzle, inlet header, tube bank, outlet header and the outlet nozzle. The pressure drop plays acritical role in the overall efficiency of a SHTX. The side pressure drop ΔPT for a single pass constitutes of the pressure drop in the straight tubes (ΔPTT), pressure drop in the tube entrances, exits and reversals (ΔPTE), and pressure
product will give pictures and information, which anticipate the execution of that outline. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is valuable in a wide mixed bag of uses and use in industry. CFD is one of the limbs of liquid mechanics that uses numerical strategies and calculation might be utilized to tackle and investigate issues that include liquid streams furthermore recreate the stream over a channelling, vehicle or apparatus. Workstations are utilized to perform the great much estimation needed to reproduce the communication of liquids and gasses with the complex surfaces utilized within building. More precise codes that can precisely and rapidly mimic even intricate situations, for example, supersonic and turbulent streams are progressing exploration. Onwards the aeronautic trade has incorporated CFD procedures into the configuration, R&D and assembling of airplane and plane motors. All the more as of late the techniques have been connected to the configuration of inward burning motor, ignition assemblies of gas turbine and heaters additionally liquid streams and hotness move in high temperature exchanger. Progressively CFD is turning into a basic part in the configuration of modern items and procedures. 5. GOVERNING EQUATIONS
2.6 Rajagopal, Thundil Karuppa Raj and Srinath Ganne  : They investigate the impacts of baffle inclination angles on shell and tubeheatexchanger for fluid flow and the heat transfer characteristics. Three different baffle inclination angles namely 0°, 10° and 20° are taken. The simulation results for different shell and tubeheat exchangers are compared for their performance. In this project variousshell and tubeheat exchangers, one with segmental baffles perpendicular to fluid flow and two with segmental baffles inclined to the fluid flow direction has been taken. The shell side design has been investigated numerically by modeling a shell and tubeheatexchanger. This study concerns only single shell and single side pass parallel flow heatexchanger. For the baffle cut of 36%, the heatexchanger performance is investigated by varying mass flow rate and baffle incline angle. For the computational fluid dynamics simulation results outlet temperature, pressure drop, recirculation by baffles, optimal mass flow rate and optimal baffle inclination angle are investigated. It results that the shell and tubeheatexchanger with 20° gives better performance.
Abstract: Heatexchanger used for heat transfer take place for cooling or heating purpose. Shell and tube type heatexchanger is most commonly used in industrial application. The tube diameter, tube length, shell types etc. are all standardized and are available only in certain sizes and geometry, so the design of a shell-and-tubeheatexchanger usually involves a trial and error procedure. A set of Design calculation were carried out to DesignShell And tube type heatexchanger For Screw compressor for cooling the oil and comparison were made between variousparameters .By calculating the heat transfer coefficient & Pressure drop by changing parameter we came to know that,which parameter is safe for design of Shell and tube type heatexchanger. In Screw compressor oil used for compression process. Earlier practice in screw compressor oil is cooled by air medium. By using Shell and tube type heatexchanger we can successfully cool the oil by water medium.
 Ahmed A. Maraie, Ali Ahmed M. Hassan, Mohamed Salah Hassan, Taha Ebrahim M. Farrag and Mamdouh M. Nassar, “An Investigation of Heat Transfer for Two-Phase Flow (Air-Water) in Shell and Tubes HeatExchanger” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2016
exchanger provides fairly large ratios of heat transfer area to volume and weight. It provides this surfacein a form that is relatively easy to construct in a wide range of sizes and that is mechanicallyrugged enough to withstand normal shop fabrication stresses, external and internal stressesencountered under normal operating conditions, easy dismantling for cleaning and repairwork. Moreover the type of the tube and flow arrangement required for various processes likecondensation, absorption etc. taking place in the system does not permit the use Double Pipetype HeatExchanger. Therefore it is better to designconsideringShell and tube HeatExchanger.
These exchangers are those in which the hot and cold fluids flow through the same space alternatively with a little mixing occurring between the two streams. In such heat exchangers the surface, which receives thermal energy and then releases thermal energy is important. Surface materials properties as well as fluid flow properties of the fluid stream along with the geometry are the main parameters, which must be known. The analysis needs knowledge of unsteady state of conduction and convection. In steam power plants the air preheaters are usually rotor regenerator type.