The routing mechanism of ZigBee does not specify how to configure routing policies. According to characteristics of WSN data transmission, data are converged to the coordinator nodes, a hybrid routing policy using both Tree and AODVjr algorithm is proposed to ensure that the whole network is not needed to reconfigure after node fails . Follow these steps to implement the routing function. Step 1: The end device send data frames directly to its parent node (router or coordinator) using Tree routing Algorithm.
ABSTRACT: Food security is one of the main global challenges today. Despite the fact that the number of food insecure populations remains unacceptably high worldwide, each year, enormous quantities of food are lost due to many factors such as spoilage, infestations, theft and spillage during transporting. These losses are called Postharvest Losses (PHLs). Zambia's Food Reserve Agency (FRA)currently faces PHL grain inventory losses, the current grain inventory management system is manual and paper based, and the cost of implementing a commercial automated inventory management system such as one that utilizes RFID technology is high. Hence, we proposed a sensornetwork thatuses Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), ZigBeeWirelessSensorNetwork (WSN), and Cloud technologies in the development of a grain inventory management system for the FRA. An extensive literature review was conducted to find existing RFID applications in object tracking, monitoring and inventory management. A baseline study was conducted to determine the challenges faced by FRA regarding grain inventory management. The results of the baseline study were analysed and it was found that inventory is counted manually, records are mostly kept on paper and thefts are experienced. Interviews with warehouse supervisors were also conducted to get details FRA’s current business transactions. These findings were used to design automated RFID Grain Inventory Management System (RFID-GIMS) models with the goal of eliminating manual and paper based systems, and eliminating theft altogether.
Under the current application background, this paper studies the technologies relat- ed to the ZigBeewirelessnetwork, proposes corresponding hardware and software design methods; and analyzes the design principles and ideas. The ZigBeewirelessnetwork node based on CC2530 and the ZigBee-TCP/ P gateway is designed with ARM technology, combining the current development status and application back- ground of the ZigBeewirelessnetwork. The specific software design flow chart is developed through analyzing the hardware composition principles and the software design methods; and the research work is carried out based on the ZigBeewirelessnetwork node. First of all, the author designs the hardware system of ZigBeewirelessnetwork node based on CC2530, then introduces its composition principles, realiza- tion ways and the notice of PCB layout by analyzing the basic principles of the ZigBeenetwork. Meanwhile, the author also completes the design of ZigBee-TCP/ P gateway system hardware. Furthermore, according to the requirements of the design of antennas for the ZigBeenetwork, the center frequency of the printed circuit board antenna is 2.45 GHz, which can meet the requirements of the ZigBeewireless net- work through software simulation and actual test as shown in the test results.
Based on wirelesssensornetworkZigBee micro array constructed using GSM (Global System for mobile communication) network, CDMA (code division multiple access) network, Ethernet to realize the transmission and control of data, the network can be a star or hybrid topology and wake up on-demand communication module ZigBee, effectively reduce the power consumption of each ZigBeesensor nodes, reduce the probability sensor nodes to the sink node data collision. CMOS image sensor pixel existed in the past, the small signal to noise ratio, low resolution of these shortcomings, has been unable to compete and CCD technology. The paper presents a novel model of ZigBee in wirelesssensornetwork based on CMOS image sensor and BP neural network.
The required climatic conditions for the polyhouse cultivation can be provided by using this proposed technique. The Zigbee technology has used for implementing the proposed wirelessnetwork. Few of the surrounding parameters of ambient temperature, humidity percentage, light intensity range and soil moisture content inside polyhouse are controlled and optimum conditions for crop growth inside polyhouse can be provided with the proposed model using abrupt actuators used. This model has developed with the mesh topology consists various nodes which are deployed inside polyhouse and are controlled by one central monitoring unit (CMU). Based on the crop the threshold values for the sensors and control values for the actuators during day time and night time are programmed in the CMU and it continuously receives the sensors data from all the nodes, and with respect to the programmed values of crop the CMU sends the controlling data to the actuator node for maintaining constant and required environmental conditions. By using this proposed model the necessity of human effort can be reduced and also the suitable weather conditions for the crop production irrespective of the season can be provided for the maximum beneficiary to the farmer.
The neural network is learning or training. The so-called training, is in the sample set (or called the training set) input to the process of the neural network, according to certain rules, connection weights adjustment between neurons, so that the network can store the relationship between sample set in the connection weight matrix way, which makes the network to accept input, to give the appropriate output . Learning is one of the most important functions of neural network. Neural network is through continuous simulation and learning of the neural network, the simulation results and performance error change curve correction network parameters finally get the weights of the network, an optimal threshold value and other parameters. Neural network evaluation of changing network parameters is the basis of learning rules. The learning rule of neural network is generally divided into supervised learning, unsupervised learning two rules.
Heinzelman et al. (10, 2002) have used LEACH protocol for the data transmission. The authors have considered the amount of remaining energy while selecting the CH. There is an reduction of about 40 % in the energy with the increase in the speed of data transmission has been obtained.Muruganathan, et al (11, 2005) a centralized approach has been used, which distributed the energy among the entire nodes deployed in the network. In this paper, the authors have used the base stations that are powered with high energy in order to accomplish the higher energy task.Ghasemzadeh (12, 2014) have used Bayesian Networkmodel to select the CH. This model has worked on the basis of three different parameters such as the distance to base station, residual energy as well as the density. The probability of each CH has been calculated. The dynamic zoning method along with a greedy mechanism has been used to distribute CH uniformly, which results in increase in the lifetime of the network.Wang et al. (13, 2012) the concept of relaying node has been considered to enhance the selection of CH.Also have considered the residual energy of the node during the selection of the cluster head, the possibility of selecting the low energy node as the cluster head is reduced. Based on the remaining energy and the distance to the base station, the relay node is selected from the CH to become a relay node between the base station and other CH’s. The simulation results have shown that the LEACH-R protocol
Nowadays, the problems of increasing protection and ensuring the security of information systems (IS) are really important. At the same time, an information system can combine various technologies, such as cloud computing, terminal access, and virtualization. Recently, wirelesssensor networks have become a part of information systems. Examples of such systems include “ smart home ” , “ smart city ” , etc. Thus, while ensuring the protection of an information system that includes a wirelesssensornetwork, care must be taken not only for the security of standard automated network devices, but also for the security of sensor nodes. At the same time, because WSN have features that are not typical for wired and wireless computer networks, such as physically unprotected nodes, lack of infrastructure, dynamically changing topology, limited resources of the node-sensor, changes in the quantitative and qualitative network configuration, methods and means of protection must take these factors into account.
The improved AODV routing algorithm is embedded in the process model . The MAC layer is called to scan channels after receiving the interrupt request of scanning channel from application layer. When it is complete, network layer selects the appropriate channel and network identifier to establish the network, and the node waits for the request frame of processing beacon and accessing network, routing control packet and data packets. After network establishment, other devices also receive the interrupt request of scanning channel and then access the network.
problem of using ARM processor S3C2440A to realize protocol conversion between networks . Khan et al. (2016) discussed the idea and scheme of network node design and development. Generally, the combination of processor and radio frequency pro- cessing chip or high integration chip system architecture uses single chip or low-end processor. It also uses the embedded software architecture to implement the transmis- sion network function . Mosterman et al. (2016) studied the two means of the design of embedded software. One is the design idea based on the TinyOS operating system, and another is the solution scheme based on the ZigBee protocol stack. TinyOS can quickly develop component-based architecture, which reduces the code volume oper- ating of the sensing network. The system and library functions are written and designed based on structured concepts and execution models. The solution to the ZigBee stack is to transplant ZigBee protocol stack on the microprocessor or on chip system, and then use the application programming interface function to complete the development of application layer . Khan et al. (2016) studied wireless remote monitoring based on WSN. They used the simple structure, small size, and low cost features of WSN composed of ZigBee technology to realize close range wireless connection, which can ensure the real-time and reliability of data transmission . Nellore et al. (2016) dis- cussed the ZigBee technology and gave the composition of the wireless data acquisition system based on ZigBee. Finally, they completed the node acquisition by using CC2430 chip, designed the hardware and software of the main control unit, and realized data acquisition and wireless transmission . Khan et al. (2016) analyzed the new and open wireless interconnection technology - ZigBee technology, combined sensor technol- ogy, ZigBee technology and routing protocol, and constructed a WSN . Shaikh et al. (2016) studied the ARM9 industrial control motherboard as the core unit, used the om- nidirectional vibration sensor, and designed a set of vibration data acquisition system based on WSN by combining with the ZigBeewirelessnetwork technology .
Preemptive part of WAPAS is based on COLIBROS operating system. For non-preemptive system, the whole application is transformed to fit in cooperative multitasking paradigm and hardware limitations. Application programmer may or may not understand all details of this transformation, but (s)he must be aware of certain limitations. Level of application programmer's expertise necessary for efficient usage of this programming model (especially in non-preemptive environments) remains to be determined.
ZigBee End Device (ZED): They serve only as normal nodes without any routing feature . ZigBee technology uses three basic topologies, including star, tree and mesh, as seen in Figure 1. The star topology seen in Figure 1.a has a structure with centralized management and communication. Its architecture is based on the central node. ZEDs do not contact each other directly, instead communicating through the ZC in the center. The ZC holds a PAN ID and this ID is not defined in any other ZigBeenetwork in the environment. Star topology consumes battery power y rapidly because it points toward the center. Also, ZigBee clustering is cumbersome while addressing large-scale networks. For this reason, the star topology is not very suitable for conventional wirelesssensor networks . The mesh topology shown in Figure 1.b is also centralized like the star topology and any node can reach and communicate with any other node in the network. Although this gives the network high flexibility, it also introduces the complexity of end-to-end communication. The mesh topology manages power efficiency and battery usage better than the star topology. As it does not determine a single route between nodes . The tree topology shown in Figure 1.c, with its low power consumption and cost , is very suitable topology for wirelesssensor networks. The power protection process is provided by the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Mac frame . Although tree topology is efficient for wirelesssensor networks, it has drawbacks related to restrict routing processes and band usage. Any disconnection in tree topology delays data flow and a heavy workload is created with recovery processes. The topology does not use multiple routes. Tree topology is better than mesh topology with respect to memory usage, as a single route is used from source node to the destination node and excess memory is not saved .
Underground Sensor Networks (USNs) are characteristic augmentations of the secured WirelessSensorNetwork (WSN) sensation which comprise of sensors buried underground which impart through soil. And WUSNs can possibly affect a wide environmental sensing, agriculture, border patrol, and infrastructure detection. The principle distinction in the middle of WUSNs and conventional systems The main contrast in the middle and the WUSNs is the communication channel. The direct characterization of the underground wireless channel is highly difficult. Since, there are huge contrasts between the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM) waves passing through the air in the soil gap. To this end, propelled channel models are inferred to portray the WUSN channel considering propagation of EM waves propagating soil, soil moisture, soil composition and so One of the most promising application areas of the late ed wireless networking techniques are the WUSNs. The WUSNs are having wireless devices that work beneath the underground surface. These devices are either (i) set within an bounded underground space, (ii) buried totally under road/subway, underground mines and
ZigBee was designed to provide high data throughput in applications where the duty cycle is low and low power consumption is an important consideration. (Many devices that use ZigBee are powered by battery.) Because ZigBee is often used in industrial automation and physical plant operation, it is often associated with machine- to-machine (M2M) communication and the Internet of Things (IoT). ZigBee is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association's 802.15 specification.
Many companies such as Sprint, Motorola and Microsoft have incorporated Bluetooth into mobile phones, portable computers, cars, stereo headsets, MP3 players, etc. Bluetooth is a short range low power, low cost communication standard that uses radio technology. Originally, in 1984 Bluetooth was envisioned as a cable- replacement technology. In 1999 seven companies teamed up and formed a group called the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The SIG developed Bluetooth into an attractive compatible wireless standard.
A ZigBee device can be configured to operate on the network as a coordinator, a router or an end device. As coordinator, ZigBee will be responsible for managing the network. As a router, to expand the network range, transferring data when requested. Finally, as an end device, where sensors and actuators are usually installed, commands can be send to this device or it can transmit information collected by it. In addition, this latter configuration has the interesting feature of acting in Sleep mode, when the device is able to go into sleep state mode and only activated when required by the network, which allows an energy saving as the power consumption it is not constant.
As we know that we can’t get proper regulated power distribution because of many reasons. The world’s big issue is only that the unequal power transfer. So that many researchers expect existing energy production capabilities will fail to meet future demand without new sources of energy, including new power plant construction. Instead of that solutions ignore another attractive alternative which is to slow down or decrease energy consumption through the use of technology to dramatically increase energy efficiency. To overcome this problem we make system like whenever lights gets cut off suddenly and it is interrupted for some time then small loads are automatically in on state condition but big loads may off for time when lights recovers itself .Using some wirelesssensor x-bee protocol we make that methodology. It is very easy to understand and for economically it may also moderate. We create a wirelesssensornetwork having number of nodes which communicate with each other in full duplex mode. Here we using the x-bee wireless communication so its main point is that x-bee is require very less power, we can operate that sensor using battery too. There are one controlling and one end devices for managing the power. The loads are controlled by end devices and this project will differentiate and to control the devices on the basis of power consume by the loads and their demand for efficient use of electrical power.
The idea of the project is to build a prototype for monitoring and control of complex electrical systems. The proposed system includes various system nodes that constantly monitor different parameters such as voltage, current and temperature in an electrical system. The sensed data from node is transmitted using sink node using Zigbee module. the data from sink node send to the Thingspeak cloud and mobile app. This application is a perfect example of IOT based monitoring and control system.
IJEDR1601064 International Journal of Engineering Development and Research (www.ijedr.org) 408 As the Ness LDR is very small (approx 5 mm x 4mm x 2 mm) it can be installed anywhere. Although it can be installed on a PIR detector consideration must be given as to the amount of light near the ceiling in a corner compared to lower near the floor. As a suggestion you could mount it on a blank electrical plate attached to the wall near the floor / power point level where the light is more even. This would change from site to site, room by room The LDR Sensor is wired directly to any Zone input. (Even the Keypad Zone input, (where a good location for the LDR could be on the keypad)) It does not need power.
We have used LM 35 temperature sensor for sensing temperature of rail boogies, tracks, wheels etc. There is wear and tear of train wheels and tracks because of over load in trail boogies results in great friction between wheels and rail tracks. Due to extra load, track temperatures raise and further more increment in temperature which will result in track misalignment and also train wheels wear over time which suffer from flat and out-of-round wheels. Temperature sensor on boogie used to detect burning. Temp sensor is shown in fig.4 below. LM35 is of low cost temperature sensor and easy to use which generates high output voltage hence no need of amplification. LM35 IC is an integrated circuit which generates output voltage linearly proportional to its degree centigrade temperature.