In this paper existing STHE will studied in detail and from which size of the shell and input and output temperature of fluids held constant as input parameter to size the modified STHE. Unknown parameters (decision variables) can be either dependent or independent variables. Then the whole STHE correlations are defined in terms of independent variables. For different independent variable variations, values of heat transfer rate and cost of STHE are different. In a case of optimization using Microsoft Excel, more influential independent variables on values of heat transfer rate and cost will considered in a specified ranges to decrease analysis complexity. But in MATLAB programing all independent variables will be considered. Finally, for each methods one best value will be selected in order to have satisfactory heat transfer rate and total cost. Of which, by compression one solution will take as a final modified STHE.
tube length, pressure drops and velocities in both sides of the ACHE, heat transfer area and fan power consumption.Vivek Patel and VimalSavsani presented optimization of a plate-fin heatexchanger design through an improved Multi-Objective Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (MO- ITLBO) algorithm. In this study, the Multi-Objective Improved Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (MO-ITLBO) algorithm was introduced and applied for the multi-objectiveoptimization of plate-fin heat exchangers. Costa and Queiroz developed design optimization of shell-and-tubeheat exchangers . Caputo et al. presented heatexchanger design based on the economic optimization . Fesanghary et al. applied a harmony search algorithm to design optimization of shell and tubeheat exchangers . Hilbert et al. developed parallel genetic algorithms to shape optimization of a heatexchanger . Sanaye and Hajabdollahi used multi-objectiveoptimization of shell and tubeheat exchangers . Ponce-Ortega et al. used the genetic algorithms for the optimal design of shell-and-tubeheat exchangers . Jie Yang et al. developed optimization of shell-and-tubeheat exchangers using a general design approach motivated by constructal theory . Daniël Walraven et al. used optimum configuration of shell- and-tubeheat exchangers in low-temperature organic Rankine cycles . Jie Yang et al. developed optimization of shell-and-tubeheat exchangers conforming to TEMA standards with the designs motivated by constructal theory . Mohsen Amini and Majid Bazargan used two-objectiveoptimization in shell-and-tubeheat exchangers using genetic algorithm . Literature review also indicates that BBA algorithm has never been used for such a study.
B.V. Babu, S.A. Munawarb:- in the present study for the first time DE, an improved version of genetic algorithms (GAs), has been successfully applied with different strategies for 1,61,280 design configurations using Bell’s method to find the heat transfer area. In the application of DE, 9680 combinations of the key parameters are considered. For comparison, GAs are also applied for the same casestudy with 1080 combinations of its parameters. For this optimal design problem, it is found that DE, an exceptionally simple evolution strategy, is significantly faster compared to GA and yields the global optimum for a wide range of the key parameters.
find the heat transfer area. In the application of DE, 9680combinations of the key parameters are considered. For comparison, GAs are also applied for the same casestudy with 1080 combinations of its parameters. For this optimal design problem, it is found that DE, an exceptionally simple evolution strategy, is significantly faster compared to GA and yields the global optimum for a wide range of the key parameters. This paper demonstrates the first successful application of DE for the optimal design of shell-and-tube HEs. A generalized procedure has been developed to run the DE algorithm coupled with a function that uses Bell’s method of HED, to find the global minimum HE area. For the casestudy taken up, application of all the 10 different working strategies of DE are explored. The performance of DE and GA is compared. From this study we conclude that the population-based algorithms such as GAs and DE provide significant improvement in the optimal designs, by achieving the global optimum, compared to the traditional designs. For the given optimal shell-and-tube HED problem the best population size, using both DE and GA, is about seven times the number of design variables. From ‘more likeliness’ as well as ‘speed’ point of view, DE/best/1/. . . strategy is found to be the best out of the presently available 10 strategies of DE.DE, a simple evolution strategy, is significantly faster compared to GA and it achieves the global minimum over a wide range of its key parameters—indicating the ‘likeliness’ of achieving the true global optimum.DE proves to be a potential source for accurate and faster optimization. B. Khalifeh Soltan, M. Saffar-Avval *, E. Damangir There is no precise criterion to determine baffle spacing in the presented procedure for condenser design in the HeatExchanger Design Handbook (HEDH
Abstract: This paper will present an over view on the different types failures occurring in heat exchangers and the maintenance procedure adopted for smooth operation of the heatexchanger. Heatexchanger is present as a static equipment at Hindustan Organic Chemicals Limited. The operation of this heatexchanger involves the production of Phenol from TAR COLUMN. The casestudy deals with the failure analysis of heatexchanger in which its design is checked. In HOCL, a shell and tubeheatexchanger is used in the production line of phenol. Hot oil at 328°C and 10.5 kg/cm2 is passing through the exchanger tubes. SS316 material is used in the tubes. 120 tubes at the top of the heatexchanger fails regularly and hence the plant have to be closed down for at least 2 days on each failure. The failure causes loss of hot oil (therminol) which cost approximately Rs 850 per litre. About 1cm drop in oil level costs about 5 lakhs. In order to overcome this problem, the design of this heatexchanger is analysed for finding out the reason behind this failure.
Heat exchangers are devices that facilitate the exchange of heat between two fluids that are at different temperatures while keeping them from mixing with each other. This device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids that are at different temperatures and which in most of the cases they are separated by a solid wall. Heat exchangers are used in power plants, nuclear reactors, refrigeration and air conditioning systems, automotive industries, heat recovery systems, chemical processing, and food industries. Different heat exchangers are named according to their applications. For example, heat exchangers being used to condense are known as condensers, similarly heat exchangers for boiling purposes are called boilers . Shell and tubeheat exchangers (STHXs) have been most widely used equipment in the industrial fields including: power plant, petroleum refining, steam generation etc. STHXs provide relatively large ratios of heat transfer area to volume and weight and can be easily cleaned .Performance and efficiency of heat exchangers are measured through the amount of heat transferred using least area of heat transfer and pressure drop. Baffle Angle, Baffle Cut, Baffle Spacing, Tube Diameter and Number of Tubes These are the main factors affecting heat transfer of Heatexchanger. The optimization of shell-and-tubeheat exchangers requires a good knowledge of the local and average shell-side heat transfer coefficients which is complicated by a shell diameter, baffle cut, baffle spacing, tube diameter, pitch, arrangement. These leakages reduce the velocity in the tube bundle and, hence, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop .
Andre L.H. Costa and Eduardo M. Queiroz  presented a paper which deals with study about the design optimization of shell-and-tubeheat exchangers. The formulated problem consists of the minimization of the thermal surface area for a certain service, involving discrete decision variables. Additional constraints represent geometrical features and velocity conditions which must be complied in order to reach a more realistic solution for the process task.
A heatexchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. Many a times some issues occurred in the heatexchanger. Out of which this paper is concerned with the thermo-mechanical issue that is thermal expansion of tubesheet due to high temperature. It is necessary to make a optimize design which is safe, economical and accurate. Due to high temperature and high pressure fluids tubesheet of heatexchanger expands which results expansion of shell which causes deformation of heatexchanger. To avoid this deformation, analysis of effect of temperature variation and associated stresses in the tubesheet is necessary. Objective of this paper is to analyse the temperature variation at the junction of shell to tubesheet junction in shell and tubeheatexchanger and optimization of tubesheet thickness.
In this paper a simplified approach to optimize the design of ShellTubeHeatExchanger [STHE] by flow induced vibration analysis [FVA] is presented. The vibration analysis of STHE helps in achieving optimiza- tion in design by prevention of tube failure caused due to flow induced vibration. The main reason for tube failure due to flow induced vibration is increased size of STHE. It is found that in case of increased size of STHE, the surface area and number of tubes increases, thus the understanding and analysis of vibration be- comes a very difficult task. Again it is found that flow induced vibration analysis is considered as an integral part of mechanical & thermal design of STHE. The detailed design, fabrication, testing and analysis work was carried out at Alfa Laval (India), Ltd., Pune-10.
Our study aims at studying simple un-baffled heatexchanger, which is more similar to the double pipe heat exchangers. Almost no study is found for an un-baffled shell and tubeheatexchanger. Thus general correlations of heat transfer and pressure drop for straight pipes can be useful to get an idea of the design. Generally there has been lot of work done on heat transfer  and pressure drop  in heat exchangers. Pressure drop in a heatexchanger can be divided in three parts. Mainly it occurs due to fanning friction along the pipe. In addition to this it also occurs due to geometrical changes in the flow i.e. contraction and expansion at inlet and outlet of heatexchanger . Handbook of hydraulic resistance pro- vides the correlations for the pressure losses in these three regions separately by introducing the pressure loss coefficients.
The temperature and pressure levels, as well as differences often impose several problems. The corrosiveness, toxicity and scale forming tendency in addition to thermal properties of substances must be considered. There are also economic considerations, which include factor such as initial cost of the exchanger, necessary space, and required life of the unit cases of maintenance.
control algorithm which is delivered by J.Richalet etc. in 1978, and has advanced a lot over the years . The model of DMC control algorithm is based on step response prediction model. Traditional autocorrecting of single step prediction is extended to multiple step prediction. Based on the practical feedback information, repeating optimization of the algorithm restrains effectively the algorithm sensitive to parameter change of the model. Based on combining the features of prediction function in DMC with feedback structure of PID, a dynamic matrix control with PID structure (PID-DMC) is derived. Using DMC algorithm it requires the inversion computation of higher dimensional matrix and the computation required for the PID-DMC algorithm complicated than that in traditional DMC algorithm. Traditional feedback control algorithm-PID control is simple in principle, easy to understand and implement in engineering, which is still widely used for controlling temperature of heatexchanger. Many advanced control algorithm is based on PID control algorithm. Heatexchanger process is highly nonlinear and time varying function. Using conventional PID control for heatexchanger, it cannot achieve ideal control effect because of its nonlinear and time varying behavior. In order to solve these problems, the predictive PID controller has derived. Using simplified DMC-PID algorithm for controlling temperature of shell and tubeheatexchanger. The steady state and transient response of shell and tubeheatexchanger using simplified DMC-PID control is simulated and compared with Conventional DMC-PID algorithms. It is found that the simplified DMC-PID performs well than the conventional PID, DMC-PID and results are tabulated.
In present day shell and tubeheatexchanger is the most common type heatexchanger widely use in oil refinery and other large chemical process, because it suits high pressure application. Firstly modeling done on CATIA software and the process in solving simulation consists of modeling and meshing the basic geometry of shell and tubeheatexchanger using CFX package ANSYS 19.2. The objective of the project is design of shell and tubeheatexchanger with series of baffles and study the flow and temperature field inside the shell using ANSYS software tools. The process in solving simulation consists of modeling and meshing the basic geometry of shell and tubeheatexchanger using CFD package ANSYS 19.2. The objective of the project is design of shell and tubeheatexchanger with baffle and study the flow and temperature field inside the shell using ANSYS software tools. The heatexchanger contains 5 tubes and 600 mm length shell diameter 90 mm. The helix angle of baffle will be varied from 90 0 , 30 0 to 45 0 . In simulation will show how the pressure vary in shell due to different helix angle and flow rate. The flow pattern in the shell side of the heatexchanger with continuous baffles was forced to be rotational and Baffles Series due to the geometry of the continuous baffles, which results in a significant increase in heat transfer coefficient per unit pressure drop in the heatexchanger.
(STHX) is the most common type of heatexchanger broadly used in marine ships, due to its high pressure application. The AC plants fitted on-board Marine ships consist of a Chiller i.e. parallel flow heatexchanger with single segmental baffles. The make of the Chiller is Alfa Laval Ltd. and that of AC plant is Heinen and Hopman ltd. Kolkata. The heatexchanger contains 234 tubes and 2692 mm length. The water is cooled by using refrigerant R134a in this chiller. This project mainly deals with modelling the prototype of basic geometry of shell and tubeheatexchanger using Solidworks and Space claim 2017, meshing using ICEM CFD and simulation run using CFD package ANSYS 17.0. The objective of the project is to model the shell and tubeheatexchanger with single segmental baffles and to achieve the temperature outputs as that factory acceptance trials (FATs) and to study the flow and temperature distribution inside the shell and tube using ANSYS software tools with parallel flow. In CFD analysis we will show how the temperature varies in shell due to different mass flow rates. The stream pattern in the shell with single segmental baffles was required to be rotational, which outcomes in a significant increase in heat transfer coefficient per unit pressure drop in the heatexchanger. The CFD outcomes will be compared with that of actual readings obtained from marine ship.
The main purpose of heatexchanger is the transfer of heat from one fluid to another. Among all type of heatexchanger, shell and tubeheatexchanger most commonly used. . The performances of shell and tubeheatexchanger mainly depend on baffle geometry and tube geometry. Also fouling consideration and the fluids used in shell and tube have large effect on heatexchanger performance. The effect of fouling is considered in heatexchanger design by including shell side tube side fouling resistance. The tube side fluid should be corrosive and have high fouling resistance. Baffle is one of the major parts of shelltubeheatexchanger. Baffles are designed to direct shell side fluid across the tube bundle efficiently as possible. The most common type of baffle is the single segmental baffle which changes the direction of shell fluid to archive cross flow. Now a day’s helical baffles and flower baffles are used in shell and tubeheatexchanger instead of segmental baffles and got better results. There were lots of experiments conducted in baffle plate in order to increase heatexchanger performance. M.M. Elias experimentally investigated the effect of different nano particle shape on the overall heat transfer coefficient and shell and tubeheatexchanger with different baffle angle (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50). Boehmite alumina used as nano particle. In all shapes cylindrical nano particle show grater over all heat transfer coefficient .20° baffle angle show better heat transfer than other angles Arjun K.S [2 ] investigated the performance of one shell and tubeheatexchanger model with helical angle vary from 0 to 40° .They got an effective heat transfer hike by the impact of helical angle and helix baffle inclination angle 20°makes the best performance of shell and tubeheatexchanger .Yonghua you  solved a numerical model shell and tubeheatexchanger with flower baffles for Reynold number ranging from 6813 to 22326.They found that, the mean heat transfer coefficient and convective heat transfer coefficient increase with increase of Reynolds number. Also they found that over all thermal hydraulic behaviour h sm /Δp decreases with increase of Reynolds number. Xiaoming xiao  investigated the heat transfer performance of fluid with different prandel number fluid in the shell side of helical baffle side of heatexchanger. The value of ‘pr’ ranges from 5 to 15000 and helical tilt angle from 10° to 50°. High prandel number fluid with small helical angle reveals to be optimum choice. In this studyoptimization of shell and tubeheatexchanger have done for maximum heat transfer. Optimization mainly on for tube arrangement and baffle angle .
In present day shell and tubeheatexchanger is the most common type heatexchanger widely use in oil refinery and other large chemical process, because it suits high pressure application. Firstly modeling done on CATIA software and the process in solving simulation consists of modeling and meshing the basic geometry of shell and tubeheatexchanger using CFD package ANSYS 14.0. The objective of the project is design of shell and tubeheatexchanger with series of baffles and study the flow and temperature field inside the shell using ANSYS software tools. The process in solving simulation consists of modeling and meshing the basic geometry of shell and tubeheatexchanger using CFD package ANSYS 14.0. The objective of the project is design of shell and tubeheatexchanger with baffle and study the flow and temperature field inside the shell using ANSYS software tools. The heatexchanger contains 5 tubes and 600 mm length shell diameter 90 mm. The helix angle of baffle will be varied from 10 0 to 20 0 . In simulation will show how the pressure vary in shell due to different helix angle and flow rate. The flow pattern in the shell side of the heatexchanger with continuous baffles was forced to be rotational and Baffles Series due to the geometry of the continuous baffles, which results in a significant increase in heat transfer coefficient per unit pressure drop in the heatexchanger.
IV. G ENETIC A LGORITHMS F OR PID C ONTROLLER T UNING Genetic Algorithms (GAs) is a search optimization technique based on the mechanism of Darwin’s principle of natural selection. The searching process is similar to that in nature where a biological process in which stronger individual is likely to be winner in a competing environment. GAs must be initialized with set of solutions represented by chromosomes called a population.
In a typical SSHE (Fig.), fluid is slowly pumped along the annulus between a stationary heated or cooled outer cylinder and a rotating inner cylinder. Moving blades attached to the inner cylinder scrape the outer cylinder surface periodically to prevent film formation and promote mixing and heat transfer. The blades are often manufactured with holes or gaps to allow mass flow through the scrapers and to reduce the power required for rotation. In comparison with the axial flow, the rotational flow dominates the mixing process. The high shear region close to the tips of the blades and the significant thermal effects due to viscous dissipation imply that it is crucial to understand the local shear and thermal effects in order to predict heat transfer performance. 
Tube OD of ¾ and 1‟‟ are very common to design a compact heatexchanger. The most efficient condition for heat transfer is to have the maximum number of tubes in the shell to increase turbulence. The tube thickness should be enough to withstand the internal pressure along with the adequate corrosion allowance. The tube thickness is expressed in terms of BWG (Birmingham Wire Gauge) and true outside diameter (OD). The tube length of 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 fts are preferably used. Longer tube reduces shell diameter at the expense of higher shell pressure drop. Finned tubes are also used when fluid with low heat transfer coefficient flows in the shell side. Stainless steel, admiralty brass, copper, bronze and alloys of copper-nickel are the commonly used tube materials:
In this shell and tube type heatexchanger, both the fluids flow in opposite directions. The hot and cold fluids(water) enter at the opposite ends. The temperature difference between the two fluids remains more or less nearly constant. This type of heatexchanger, due to counter flow, gives maximum rate of heat transfer for a given surface area. Hence such heat exchangers are most favored for heating and cooling of fluids.