large number of sensors and wires. The system uses long wires it becomes complex and the installation cost also will go high. The best solution to reduce the complexity and the cost is to use wirelesssensor netwoks. WSN has its own advantages like less cost, size, low power consumption and above all flexibility. Zigbee has carved a niche for itself among the galaxy of wireless technologies. As Zigbee protocol is available with its unique features like low cost and other advantages, it is used widely for agricultural applications. This Zigbee protocol allows the communication between the control unit and the actuator unit in order to monitor and control the environment inside the polyhouse. Zigbee has many advantages over other wireless networking protocols, but it has got its own disadvantages such as batteries need to be replaced on periodic basis  and one cannot completely rely on Zigbee for long distance communication. The battery problem can be reduced to some extent by using alkaline batteries.
SERVER END: A WEB SERVER is designed and developed for collecting the data from surroundings through Sensors and upload it in to web server. Manual UI is designed for understanding of process with the help of HTML and PYTHON. Using the concept of Internet of Things we are uploading the each individual sensor values to the web server, where We can monitor the sensor values.
Precision agriculture can be defined as the art and sci- ence of using advanced technology to enhance crop pro- duction. Wirelesssensornetwork is a major technology that drives the development of precision agriculture. The science and engineering questions associated with preci- sion agriculture center around increasing the efficiency to prosper in a sustainable manner. Increases in agricultural efficiency will stem from networking sensors to elucidate important spatiotemporal patterns and integrating their data streams so as to not only display or record informa- tion, but to actuate human and autonomous responses. The concept of precision agriculture has been around for some time now. Blackmore et al., in 1994  defined it as a comprehensive system designed to optimize agri- cultural production by carefully tailoring soil and crop management to correspond to the unique condition found in each field while maintaining environmental quality. In California, Beckwith et al designed deployed and ana- lyzed output of a large scale implementation of a wirelesssensornetwork in a vineyard . 65 motes with a maxi- mum of 8 hops were deployed in a planned area where no neighbor discovery features were implemented and a table driven protocol was used rather than a self organiz- ing network. Data was recorded every five minutes with a grid of sensor nodes each separated 15m from the other. In Europe, the Lofar Agro project is a study of precision
I n the referred paper , they built a prototype of an embedded wirelesssensornetwork based on easy-to-use ZigBee module. They considered a temperature monitoring application to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of their system. The collected temperature data can be stored into the MySQL Database and retrieved later for analysis. The objective of their project is to design a wirelessnetworkusing 802.15.4 and ZigBeetechnology. They used ZigBee for wireless communication. It provides 20kbps data rate and 10m communication range. They used ZigBee because it provides networking topology. It provides large communication range between devices. These are two main advantages over Bluetooth so that they are usingZigBee for their project.
Review of various Polyhouse systems based on different technologies has been discussed in this section. In Wired Technology, input sensors are connected directly with the microcontroller. Analog output of the sensors is sent to ADC which gives the digital output to the controller for further processing. With the use of less hardware system, the efforts made by human can be reduced. The system can be used for controlling the greenhouse automatically without human intervention. ADC is used separately due to which power consumption is more . In GSM based technology, the updates about the field condition can be sent to the user through GSM facility in the form of SMS. Farmers can check the status of environmental conditions from their mobile phone at any remote location . Therefore human efforts are reduced to maintain the desired condition .Manual monitoring of system is not required which reduces human efforts.The system avoids over irrigation, under irrigation and saves the water.SMS charges increases the cost of the system.Wireless transmission of data is also absent . In GSM &bluetooth based Technology, The complete information about the system is sent to the user’s mobile phone through GSM module. To make the system more cost effective, bluetooth technology has been used alongwith GSM facility when it is within sufficient range .Wireless transmission is used only for output and not for input. In wirelessZigbeetechnology, wireless transmission of sensors data usingZigbee module makes the system automatic and human efforts also get to reduce. The system has more flexibility but Zigbeewireless range is limited . In wireless RF technology, wireless range is increased because of RF module.Human efforts get to reduce.The system hardware is very complex and overall installation cost is high .
problem of using ARM processor S3C2440A to realize protocol conversion between networks . Khan et al. (2016) discussed the idea and scheme of network node design and development. Generally, the combination of processor and radio frequency pro- cessing chip or high integration chip system architecture uses single chip or low-end processor. It also uses the embedded software architecture to implement the transmis- sion network function . Mosterman et al. (2016) studied the two means of the design of embedded software. One is the design idea based on the TinyOS operating system, and another is the solution scheme based on the ZigBee protocol stack. TinyOS can quickly develop component-based architecture, which reduces the code volume oper- ating of the sensing network. The system and library functions are written and designed based on structured concepts and execution models. The solution to the ZigBee stack is to transplant ZigBee protocol stack on the microprocessor or on chip system, and then use the application programming interface function to complete the development of application layer . Khan et al. (2016) studied wireless remote monitoring based on WSN. They used the simple structure, small size, and low cost features of WSN composed of ZigBeetechnology to realize close range wireless connection, which can ensure the real-time and reliability of data transmission . Nellore et al. (2016) dis- cussed the ZigBeetechnology and gave the composition of the wireless data acquisition system based on ZigBee. Finally, they completed the node acquisition by using CC2430 chip, designed the hardware and software of the main control unit, and realized data acquisition and wireless transmission . Khan et al. (2016) analyzed the new and open wireless interconnection technology - ZigBeetechnology, combined sensor technol- ogy, ZigBeetechnology and routing protocol, and constructed a WSN . Shaikh et al. (2016) studied the ARM9 industrial control motherboard as the core unit, used the om- nidirectional vibration sensor, and designed a set of vibration data acquisition system based on WSN by combining with the ZigBeewirelessnetworktechnology .
Arduino is a controller that has gained popularity rapidly in recent years. It is an open source electronic prototype platform with high flexibility, easy to use and low price. It has a rich interface, simple programming environment and great development freedom. The scalability of Arduino is very high, and it can rapidly design and im- plement personalized systems according to the field application requirements, and reduce the cost and volume of the system while improving system efficiency and versatility. This paper combines the ZigBeetechnology and wirelesssensor technolo- gy in Arduino technology advantages, and conducts the research on wirelesssensornetwork node that meets the needs of wirelesssensornetwork applications. It is of important significance to broaden the space available for the wirelesssensornetwork node.
ZigBee End Device (ZED): They serve only as normal nodes without any routing feature . ZigBeetechnology uses three basic topologies, including star, tree and mesh, as seen in Figure 1. The star topology seen in Figure 1.a has a structure with centralized management and communication. Its architecture is based on the central node. ZEDs do not contact each other directly, instead communicating through the ZC in the center. The ZC holds a PAN ID and this ID is not defined in any other ZigBeenetwork in the environment. Star topology consumes battery power y rapidly because it points toward the center. Also, ZigBee clustering is cumbersome while addressing large-scale networks. For this reason, the star topology is not very suitable for conventional wirelesssensor networks . The mesh topology shown in Figure 1.b is also centralized like the star topology and any node can reach and communicate with any other node in the network. Although this gives the network high flexibility, it also introduces the complexity of end-to-end communication. The mesh topology manages power efficiency and battery usage better than the star topology. As it does not determine a single route between nodes . The tree topology shown in Figure 1.c, with its low power consumption and cost , is very suitable topology for wirelesssensor networks. The power protection process is provided by the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Mac frame . Although tree topology is efficient for wirelesssensor networks, it has drawbacks related to restrict routing processes and band usage. Any disconnection in tree topology delays data flow and a heavy workload is created with recovery processes. The topology does not use multiple routes. Tree topology is better than mesh topology with respect to memory usage, as a single route is used from source node to the destination node and excess memory is not saved .
Security of life and properties is one of the basic provisions of a nations constitution which must be well protected at all times. For residential and industrial setups, there are so many security infractions that needed better solutions taken the advantages of the new developments in Communication technology. This work intends to provide a security system to monitor a residential or industrial setup, for infractions and give the necessary information to arrest its effect even without the physical presence of the property owner. The design consists of wirelesssensornetwork for surveillance in a typical residential or industrial outfit usingZigBeewireless communication protocol, while the ATTiny102 microcontroller was used as the controller for the sensor and security module. The information from the ZigBeewireless device was transmitted through a radio frequency signal at 2460 MHz to the central processing unit with ATmega328p
Figure 3: The basic topology of monitoring system The coordinator communicates with the base station through serial communication RS232. The base station in turn analyzes and stores the incoming data from the nodes. Then it manages the control signals that regulate the sensors’ sampling rate. Knowledge of the precise time is important so as the base station to be able to check for the on-time arrival of all the packets, through the coordinator. The router extends the range of the wirelessnetwork while end-devices can be connected directly to the coordinator or to a router. The end devices, which are scattered in the field, contain various sensors. The most important characteristic of the network is the bi-directional communication with ZigBeetechnology .
completed on ease. Many automation techniques came into scene. Bluetooth wirelesstechnology has became more popular standard in the communication arena. Bluetooth technology handles the wireless part of the communication channel; it transmits and receives the data wirelessly between these devices. The existing system architectures incorporate a personal computer for the management. This adds additional complexity to the system, hence increasing the overall fiscal expense. It requires intrusive installation. It also lacks network interoperability that is both home networks and the home automation systems which utilise them have been developed and adopted in an unplanned and ad-hoc manner. Finally, security and safety: the existing approaches have not focused on security and safety problems that may arise from their implementation. This proposed System is a novel, stand alone, low-cost and flexible ZigBee based home automation system. The architecture is designed to reduce the system’s complexity and lower fiscal costs. Hence, the system endeavors not to incorporate complex and expensive components, such as a high end personal computer, where possible. The system allows home owners to monitor and control connected devices in the home, through a variety of controls, including a ZigBee based remote control.
Location in wirelesssensor networks including a variety of classification, the absolute and relative positioning, physical location and symbolic location, centralized computing and distributed computing, tight coupling and loose coupling, location technology and range free localization based on etc.. Sensornetwork node locating system refers to a node to access our locations. The paper presents a novel model of ZigBee in wirelesssensornetwork based on CMOS image sensor and BP neural network. By the price, volume, power consumption and scalability constraints, most sensornetwork localization systems have node localization scheme using beacon assisted. BP neural network is a nonlinear optimization problem, it can be in the constraint conditions known, find a set of parameters, the objective function so that the combination to determine the minimum. Multi slope CMOS image sensor makes the dynamic range can be kept unchanged significantly increased in SNR.
Most communication sensor networks are built based on GSM in currently used communication system, in which signals and data are transferred through cable. Compared to traditional distributed cable network, GSM INTERNET network have greatly improved in expansibility and difficulty of construction and maintenance. But there are still some defects. The cables are easily to be eroded, bitten by rats, frayed, causing to high fault rate and high false communication rate. The cable transmission distance is limited, usually no more than 1km, otherwise the attenuation and interference will lead to failure of system.
In this paper can extend and intend some new technology to overcome some disadvantage. In during secretive coal mining incisive a person can breathe easily and prevent from accident that can’t give important to person sheltered . Accessible system using pic microcontroller can perform secure with low performance.  While a person can go underground coal mining with correct way once can go alternate occurs some problem to find out anyone.  ZigBee can transfer only 40km but here increases the data base to wide range the aloofness as we desire.  Existing system relies on massive hardware that consists of PLC, two 12-bit channel ADC modules and 10 inch touch screen. This system is based on the ARM7 microcontroller to devise the absolute system, which offers high recital and very low power outflow.  In this manuscript usingZigBee and WI-FI transmitted the information to host station.  It can use CCTV camera to sense the motion of the human using pic microcontroller.
Sensors capture and reveal real-world phenomena and transform these into a form which can be stored and processed. Sensors provide several societal benefits as they are integrated into devices, machines, and environments . They can enhance security and surveillance, improve productivity, prevention of catastrophic infrastructural decay or failures and enable new applications such as Automatic Meter Reading (AMR), smart agriculture and smart home applications. Advances in technologies like Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), Very Large Scale Integrations (VLSI), and wirelesstechnology contributed immensely to the wide acceptance of distributed sensor systems [3, 4]. For example, the miniaturization of sensing and computing technologies leads to the development of low-power, and inexpensive sensors, actuators, and controllers . There is a great attention on systems that can monitor and protect bridges and tunnels, pipeline infrastructure and power grid. Large networks of sensor nodes are currently being deployed to monitor vast geographical areas for forecasting environment pollution and flooding, to monitor pesticides to improve crop's health, monitoring water usage, fertilizers, and structural health of bridges with the help of vibration sensors [4, 5].
technology based on the standard will address a lot of WSN (WirelessSensor Networks) needs and low data rate wireless controls. For these kinds of needs to be fulfilled, IEEE has developed a standard called IEEE 802.15. This IEEE standard is used to describe or define the physical layer (PHY) and the media access controller (MAC) .
115 | P a g e Wirelesstechnologyusing various sensors for precision agriculture has become a popular research with the greenhouse effect. People are utilizing the merits of embedded system into monitoring and control system for agriculture parameter. Monitoring parameters of temperature and humidity is an important means for obtaining high- quality environment. Remote monitoring is an effective method in order to avoid interference environment and improve efficiency. Today, Ethernet network, RF module and ZigBeewirelessnetwork are used to transmit data in remote Monitoring System.
As we know that we can’t get proper regulated power distribution because of many reasons. The world’s big issue is only that the unequal power transfer. So that many researchers expect existing energy production capabilities will fail to meet future demand without new sources of energy, including new power plant construction. Instead of that solutions ignore another attractive alternative which is to slow down or decrease energy consumption through the use of technology to dramatically increase energy efficiency. To overcome this problem we make system like whenever lights gets cut off suddenly and it is interrupted for some time then small loads are automatically in on state condition but big loads may off for time when lights recovers itself .Using some wirelesssensor x-bee protocol we make that methodology. It is very easy to understand and for economically it may also moderate. We create a wirelesssensornetwork having number of nodes which communicate with each other in full duplex mode. Here we using the x-bee wireless communication so its main point is that x-bee is require very less power, we can operate that sensorusing battery too. There are one controlling and one end devices for managing the power. The loads are controlled by end devices and this project will differentiate and to control the devices on the basis of power consume by the loads and their demand for efficient use of electrical power.
The technology used in the system is wirelesssensornetwork. Wirelesssensornetwork refers to a group of spatially dispersed and dedicated sensors for monitoring and recording the physical conditions of the environment and organising the collected data at a central location. Sometimes they are called as dust networks, referring to minute sensors as small as dust. The proposed system consists of two nodes(substations) with inhouse voltage, temperature and current sensors connected to a sink node(Base station) through ZigBee module which acts as a data transfer device.The sink node in turn interacts with the thingspeak cloud for continuous updation of system parameters.An administrator uses a mobile app for monitoring the cloud and subsequently control the adverse condition existing in substation. Three sensors are connected to Arm7 microcontroller to measure voltage, temperature and current from transformer which is connected to load through relay. The temperature sensor used is LM35.Three zigbees are used here. Two zigbees are used as routers and one is used as coordinator. The data from the routers is transferred to the coordinator using serial communication. The ZigBee routers function as ZigBee transmitters and the coordinator functions as ZigBee receiver. ARM7 is used in the transmitter side in both the nodes. It is an advanced RISC machine which is 32 bit microprocessor. It is high performing, low power consuming with Von Neumann architecture. The sensed data is transferred from the ZigBee receiver to the thingspeak cloud using WiFi module. The data is stored in the thingspeak cloud which can easily be viewed by the administrator.
The most widely used protocols in applications such as environmental monitoring, consist of ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) , Wi-Fi (based on IEEE 802.11) , and Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1) . Being based on IEEE 802.15.4, a standard that offers low costs and low power at low data rates, ZigBee is extensively used in a wide range of monitoring and control application that require wireless connectivity. These solutions require additional hardware for packaging data and for transmitting them to the Internet. Wi-Fi is a popular networking technology based on the IEEE 802.11 set of standards that offers higher transmission range and throughput compared to IEEE 802.15.4, with the cost of higher energy consumption.