1. Introduction. Over the past few decades, mobile devices have been playing an important role in our modern and virtual lifestyle. For instance, according to the survey by International Data Corporation (IDC) in 2016, the usage of mobile devices and tablets was increased by 1.6 billion units exponentially . In recent years, mobile applications became popular in various categories such as news, entertainment, health, business and social networks. The mobile computing allows users to access all necessary applications from application centres such as Android play store and Apple iTunes etc., irrespective of location. Even mobile cloudcomputing provides high-end features for running various real time applications but still users demand for more computing resources. For mobile computing, the mobile devices are designed with limited battery life, storage capacity, processing capacity and communication capabilities. Mobility is important feature on pervasive computing environment where the user is able to perform his work without any interruption. The cloudcomputing is emerging technology which is formed with amalgamation of various technologies such as virtualization, distributed computing, SOA, web services etc. Cloudcomputing provides massive computing resources (such as hardware, software, storage) in order to improve the performance of application as well as reducing processing cost. It allows users to access data from any location on demand basis. The mobile device will perform high computational tasks on cloud platform which require more computing resources. The cloudcomputing paradigm can be represented through three different service models. Platform as a service (paas), Infrastructure as a service (Iaas), software as a service (saas) as shown in Fig 1.1The author in , presented the annual growth rate of cloud service models, Iaas is 41%, paas holds 26.6% and Saas holds 17.4%. The emerging technology, Mobile CloudComputing has been introduced to overcome limitations of mobile devices. Recently, the mobile users demand for computing is being increased due to the development in mobile computing technology. Various studies define the importance and benefit of mobile cloudcomputing for mobile users and enterprisers. For example, according to the ABI, the usage of mobile devices reached to 280 million by 2015, the revenue of Mobile cloudcomputing reached to $ 5.2 billion . Currently the growth of advanced mobile devices developed rapidly with sufficient resources such as battery life, storage, processing power. Nonetheless, it is still suffering from processing real time application such as image recognition,video streaming, language translation. Mobile devices are less compared to server systems and desktop computers in terms of computing power and storage. When mobile device runs resource intensive task put heavy load on processor and reduce battery life.
A cloud OS should provide the APIs that enable data and services interoper- ability across distributed cloud environments. Mature OSs provide a rich set of services to the applications so that each application does not have to invent important functions such as VM monitoring, scheduling, security, power management, and memory management. In addition, if APIs are built on open standards, it will help organizations avoid vendor lock-in and thereby creating a more flexible environment. For example, linkages will be required to bridge traditional DCs and public or private cloud environments. The flex- ibility of movement of data or information across these systems demands the OS to provide a secure and consistent foundation to reap the real advan- tages offered by the cloudcomputing environments. Also, the OS needs to make sure the right resources are allocated to the requesting applications. This requirement is even more important in hybrid cloud environments. Therefore, any well-designed cloud environment must have well-defined APIs that allow an application or a service to be plugged into the cloud eas- ily. These interfaces need to be based on open standards to protect customers from being locked into one vendor’s cloud environment.
This book comprehensively debates on the emergence of mobile cloudcomputing from cloudcomputing models. Various technological and architectural advancements in mobile and cloudcomputing have been reported. It has meticulously explored the design and architecture of computational offloading solutions in cloud and mobile cloudcomputing domains to enrich mobile user experience. Furthermore, to optimize mobile power consumption, existing solutions and policies toward green mobile computing, green cloudcomputing, green mobile networking, and green mobile cloudcomputing are briefly discussed. The book also presents numerous cloud and mobile resource allo- cation and management schemes to efficiently manage existing resources (hardware and software). Recently, integrated networks (e.g., WSN, VANET, MANET) have sig- nificantly helped mobile users to enjoy a suite of services. The book discusses existing architecture, opportunities, and challenges, while integrating mobile cloud comput- ing with existing network technologies such as sensor and vehicular networks. It also briefly expounds on various security and privacy concerns, such as application security, authentication security, data security, and intrusion detection, in the mobile cloud com- puting domain. The business aspects of mobile cloudcomputing models in terms of resource pricing models, cooperation models, and revenue sharing among cloud pro- viders are also presented in the book. To highlight the standings of mobile cloud comput- ing, various well-known, real-world applications supported by mobile cloudcomputing models are discussed. For example, the demands and issues while deploying resource- intensive applications, including face recognition, route tracking, traffic management, and mobile learning, are discussed. This book concludes with various future research directions in the mobile cloudcomputing domain to improve the strength of mobile cloudcomputing and to enrich mobile user experience.
In other cases, the loss of control of where your virtual IT infrastructure resides could open the way to other problematic situations. More precisely, the geographical location of a datacenter gen- erally determines the regulations that are applied to management of digital information. As a result, according to the specific location of data, some sensitive information can be made accessible to government agencies or even considered outside the law if processed with specific cryptographic techniques. For example, the USA PATRIOT Act 5 provides its government and other agencies with virtually limitless powers to access information, including that belonging to any company that stores information in the U.S. territory. Finally, existing enterprises that have large computing infra- structures or large installed bases of software do not simply want to switch to public clouds, but they use the existing IT resources and optimize their revenue. All these aspects make the use of a public computing infrastructure not always possible. Yet the general idea supported by the cloudcomputing vision can still be attractive. More specifically, having an infrastructure able to deliver IT services on demand can still be a winning solution, even when implemented within the private premises of an institution. This idea led to the diffusion of private clouds, which are similar to pub- lic clouds, but their resource-provisioning model is limited within the boundaries of an organization.
The cloud is not only an enabler for enterprises but it is a great enabler for cyber-criminals as well for two reasons. First, cloudcomputing is still very immature and lacking standards at this time. There are not a lot of engineers with years of hands-on experience securing applications in the cloud. The end result is that many cloud services are being deployed by today’s corporations without the necessary security and controls and are very vulnerable to all kinds of attacks and breaches. The second reason why the cloud is an enabler for cyber-criminals is that the cloud vendors are a huge target because they house compute resources and data for a large number of companies. The cloud providers typically provide high levels of perimeter security, but it is up to the companies deploying their services to build the appropriate level of application security. For example, an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud provider like Amazon Web Services (AWS) has world-class secure data centers, white papers on how to build highly secure services on its platform, and provides a suite of application programming interfaces (APIs), making it easier to design for security. However, it is up to the architects building the software on AWS to encrypt the data, manage the keys, implement good password policies, and so forth.
Virtualization has been used successfully since the late 1950s. A virtual memory based on paging was first implemented on the Atlas computer at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom in 1959. In a cloudcomputing environment a VMM runs on the physical hardware and exports hardware- level abstractions to one or more guest operating systems. A guest OS interacts with the virtual hardware in the same way it would interact with the physical hardware, but under the watchful eye of the VMM which traps all privileged operations and mediates the interactions of the guest OS with the hardware. For example, a VMM can control I/O operations to two virtual disks implemented as two different sets of tracks on a physical disk. New services can be added without the need to modify an operating system. User convenience is a necessary condition for the success of the utility computing paradigms. One of the multiple facets of user convenience is the ability to run remotely using the system software and libraries required by the application. User convenience is a major advantage of a VM architecture over a traditional operating system. For example, a user of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) could submit an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) containing the applications, libraries, data, and associated configuration settings. The user could choose the operating system for the application, then start, terminate, and monitor as many instances of the AMI as needed, using the Web Service APIs and the performance monitoring and management tools provided by the AWS.
The next layer within ITaaS is Platform as a Service, or PaaS. At the PaaS level, what the service providers offer is packaged IT capability, or some logical resources, such as databases, ﬁle systems, and application operating environment. Currently, actual cases in the industry include Rational Developer Cloud of IBM, Azure of Microsoft and AppEngine of Google. At this level, two core technolo- gies are involved. The ﬁrst is software development, testing and running based on cloud. PaaS service is software developer-oriented. It used to be a huge difﬁculty for developers to write programs via network in a distributed computing environ- ment, and now due to the improvement of network bandwidth, two technologies can solve this problem: the ﬁrst is online development tools. Developers can directly complete remote development and application through browser and remote console (development tools run in the console) technologies without local installation of development tools. Another is integration technology of local development tools and cloudcomputing, which means to deploy the developed application directly into cloudcomputing environment through local development tools. The second core technology is large-scale distributed application operating environment. It refers to scalable application middleware, database and ﬁle system built with a large amount of servers. This application operating environment enables appli- cation to make full use of abundant computing and storage resource in cloudcomputing center to achieve full extension, go beyond the resource limitation of single physical hardware, and meet the access requirements of millions of Internet users.
It is foreseen that cloudcomputing could become a disruptive technology for mobile multimedia applications and services . In order to meet mul- timedia’s QoS requirements in cloudcomputing for multimedia services over the Internet and mobile wireless networks, Zhu et al.  proposed a multimedia cloudcomputing framework that leverages cloudcomputing to provide multimedia applications and services over the Internet. The prin- cipal conceptual architecture is shown in Figure 1.5. Zhu et al. addressed multimedia cloudcomputing from multimedia-aware cloud (media cloud) and cloud-aware multimedia (cloud media) perspectives. The media cloud (Figure 1.5a) focuses on how a cloud can perform distributed multimedia processing and storage and QoS provisioning for multimedia services. In a media cloud, the storage, CPU, and GPU are presented at the edge (i.e., MEC) to provide distributed parallel processing and QoS adaptation for various types of devices. The MEC stores, processes, and transmits media data at the edge, thus achieving a shorter delay. In this way, the media cloud, composed of MECs, can be managed in a centralized or peer-to-peer (P2P) manner. The cloud media (Figure 1.5b) focuses on how multimedia ser- vices and applications, such as storage and sharing, authoring and mashup, adaptation and delivery, and rendering and retrieval, can optimally utilize cloudcomputing resources to achieve better quality of experience (QoE). As depicted in Figure 1.5b, the media cloud provides raw resources, such as hard disk, CPU, and GPU, rented by the media service providers (MSPs) to serve users. MSPs use media cloud resources to develop their multime- dia applications and services, for example, storage, editing, streaming, and delivery.
The ﬁ rst step is the development phase. An App Provider implements a service following the guidelines described in chapter “ Empirical Qualitative Analysis of the Current CloudComputing Market for Logistics ” . The hard requirements are that RESTful interfaces and service calls must be implemented. Additionally, the BO- stack including BODs and Mini-BODS, of the Logistics Mall environment must also be used for communication and the BO Instance Repository must be used for storage of processed information and data shared by different apps of a process. Furthermore, an end-user and the service App has to contain the workbasket mechanism. Additionally, points are just suggestions to the provider, like the usage of the Java enterprise stack. The developers are free to choose their own pro- gramming language, but must make sure that their apps are executable within the cloud environment. This is ensured and veri ﬁ ed during the next phase of the Logistics Mall App Life-Cycle. The development phase ﬁ nishes with submitting the created App and integrating it into the Logistics Mall Marketplace (MMP). For the integration the app ’ s description, its price model and the date of availability are registered in the MMP. A Business App is only available until the speci ﬁ ed date. But ﬁ rst of all the App is not visible or purchasable for any customer as long as the Logistics Mall Veri ﬁ cation has not been successfully completed.
As an emerging state-of-the-art technology, cloudcomputing has been applied to an extensive range of real-life situations. Health care service is one of such important application fields. We developed a ubiquitous health care system, named HCloud, after comprehensive evaluation of requirements of health care applications. It is provided based on a cloudcomputing plat- form with characteristics of loose coupling algorithm modules and powerful parallel computing capabilities that compute the details of those indicators for the purpose of preventive health care service. First, raw physiological sig- nals are collected from the body sensors by wired or wireless connections and then transmitted through a gateway to the cloud platform, where storage and analysis of the health status are performed through data-mining tech- nologies. Last, results and suggestions can be fed back to the users instantly for implementing personalized services that are delivered via a heteroge- neous network. The proposed system can support huge physiological data storage; process heterogeneous data for various health care applications, such as automated electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis; and provide an early warn- ing mechanism for chronic diseases. The architecture of the HCloud platform for physiological data storage, computing, data mining, and feature selections is described. Also, an online analysis scheme combined with a Map-Reduce parallel framework is designed to improve the platform’s capabilities. Performance evaluation based on testing and experiments under various conditions have demonstrated the effectiveness and usability of this system.
Enterprises that move their IT to the cloud are likely to encounter challenges such as security, interoperability, and limits on their ability to tailor their ERP to their business processes. The cloud can be a revolutionary technology, especially for small start-ups, but the benefi ts wane for larger enterprises with more complex IT needs [ 10 ]. The cloud model can be truly disruptive if it can reduce the IT opera- tional expenses of enterprises. Traditional utility services provide the same resource to all consumers. Perhaps the biggest difference between the cloudcomputing ser- vice and the traditional utility service models lies in the degree to which the cloud services are uniquely and dynamically confi gured for the needs of each application and class of users [ 12 ]. Cloudcomputing services are built from a common set of building blocks, equivalent to electricity provider turbines, transformers, and distri- bution cables. Cloudcomputing does, however, differ from traditional utilities in several critical respects. Cloud providers compete aggressively with differentiated service offerings, service levels, and technologies. Because traditional ERP is installed on your servers and you actually own the software, you can do with it as you please. You may decide to customize it, integrate it to other software, etc. Although any ERP software will allow you to confi gure and set up the software the way you would like, “Software as a Service” or “SaaS” is generally less fl exible than the traditional ERP in that you can’t completely customize or rewrite the soft- ware. Conversely, since SaaS can’t be customized, it reduces some of the technical diffi culties associated with changing the software. Cloud services can be com- pletely customized to the needs of the largest commercial users. Consequently, we have often referred to cloudcomputing as an “enhanced utility” [ 12 ]. Table 9.2 [ 5 ] shows the E-skills study for information and communications technology (ICT) practitioners conducted by the Danish Technology Institute [ 5 ] that describes the
Abstract:- By using Internet technology cloud provides virtualized IT resources as a service. CloudComputing is a combination of Grid computing and Cluster computing. By using the Internet a computer grid is created whose purpose is only utilizing shared resources such as on a pay- per-use model, computer software and hardware. The main moto of cloudcomputing is that you can access your data in any corner of the world by using internet. Cloudcomputing is a general term for delivering through the internet. Cloudcomputing is a virtualized computer power and storage delivered via platform-agnostic infrastructures of abstracted hardware and software access over internet. Cloudcomputing systems usually work on various models like public, private, hybrid, and community models.
It’s also critical to avoid thinking of cloudcomputing as a drive to reduce your operational headcount or costs. Although lowering costs is a valid business goal, it’s also a way of taking a lot of the day-to-day repetitive work out of your operations through automation. Automation enables IT staff to do something that adds benefi t to the business, allowing them more time to focus on projects rather than business as usual. This may sound like a well-used truism that is trotted out by management, and it is often overused to justify technology spending. However, if you think about the way the IT industry is moving—increasingly making use of lower-cost headcount to perform operational tasks, often through offshoring or outsourcing—you should see an opportunity to implement cloudcomputing as a way of developing your career and mov- ing up the stack to stay relevant in a changing world rather than being left to compete with a cheaper workforce.
In 1997, Professor Ramnath Chellappa of Emory University, defined cloudcomputing for the first time while a faculty member at the University of South California, as an important new “computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits alone.” Even though the international IT literature and media have come forward since then with a large number of definitions, models and architectures for cloudcomputing, autonomic and utility computing were the foundations of what the community commonly referred to as “cloudcomputing”. In the early 2000s, companies started rapidly adopting this concept upon the realization that cloudcomputing could benefit both the Providers as well as the Consumers of services. Businesses started delivering computing functionality via the Internet, enterprise- level applications, web-based retail services, document-sharing capabilities and fully-hosted IT platforms, to mention only a few cloudcomputing use cases of the 2000s. The latest widespread adoption of virtualization and of service- oriented architecture (SOA) promulgated cloudcomputing as a fundamental and increasingly important part of any delivery and critical-mission strategy, enabling existing and new products and services to be offered and consumed more efficiently, conveniently and securely. Not surprisingly, cloudcomputing became one of the hottest trends in the IT armory, with a unique and complementary set of properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, rapid provisioning, and multi-tenancy.
Abstract -- Cloudcomputing is a set of IT services that are provided to a customer over a network on a leased basis and with the ability to scale up or down their service requirement. Normally cloudcomputing services are delivered by a third party provider who owns the infrastructure. The advantages to mention but some of them include resilience, scalability, efficiency, flexibility and outsourcing non-core activities. Cloudcomputing offers an innovative method for business model for organizations to adopt IT services without upfront investments. Despite the potential gains which are achieved from the cloudcomputing, the organizations around are too slow in accepting or adjusting to it because of the security issues and challenges associated with it. Security is one of the crucial issues which hamper the growth of cloud. The idea of providing/handing important data to another company is worrisome; such that the consumers need to be vigilant in understanding the risks of data breaches in this new environment. Mobile CloudComputing (MCC) is the combination of mobile computing, wireless networks and cloudcomputing to bring rich computational resources to network operators, mobile users and even cloudcomputing providers. In this paper we discussed CloudComputing, Mobile CloudComputing, Security Risks and Solution of CloudComputing, Research Issues in MCC, Security Issues and Solutions in MCC, Advantages of MCC.
The Common Cloud Management Platform uncovered an arrangement of business and operational administration centred administrations (BSS and OSS). These BSS and OSS capacities must be misused by Cloud Services to keep running inside the setting of the individual cloud specialist organization (and the comparing CCMP establishment). Other than OSS and BSS, the CCMP likewise incorporates User Interfaces serving the three principle parts characterized in the CC RA – a Service Consumer Portal to be utilized by Cloud Service Consumers for self-benefit conveyance and administration (the genuine cloud benefit cases are utilized by means of a cloud benefit particular UI, a Service Provider Portal serving Cloud Service Provider inward clients and chairmen for day by day operations and a Service Development Portal utilized by Cloud Service Creators. CCMP usefulness is open by means of APIs uncovered by the CCMP-inside segments. Note that the design portrayed in this work item is freethinker to the real programming items used to execute this engineering.
Commonly, agility, delivery speed, and cost savings entice companies to public clouds. Public cloud, for example, can free a company from having to invest in consolidating, expanding, or building a new data center when it outgrows a current facility, Kavis says. IT really doesn’t “want to go back to the well and ask management for another several mil- lion dollars,” thus it dives into the public cloud, he says. Stadtmueller says the public cloud is the least ex- pensive way to access compute and storage capacity. Plus, it’s budget- friendly because up-front infra- structure capital investments aren’t required. Businesses can instead align expenses with their revenue and grow capacity as needed. This is one reason why numerous startups choose all- public-cloud approaches.
Nearly equal in significance level are the rest of the challenges cited by channel firms making the move to cloud, with most of those hurdles centered on financial decisions. Initial start up costs, for example, can be minimal or quite large, depending on whether or not they involved building a data center to provide cloud services. Interestingly, the largest channel firms cited this as a major challenge, though they are most likely to have the deeper pockets needed to outfit a new data center if they don’t already have one in existence. Meantime, cash flow and other financial considerations ranked highest among channel firms (63%) involved in all four types of cloud business models outlined in this study. This suggests that the level of commitment they have made to cloud has complicated financial fundamentals; one example would be the effects of a decreased reliance on legacy streams of revenue, which in the short-‐term could create cash flow concerns as they ramp cloud sales.
Mobile devices (e.g., Smartphone, tablet pcs, etc) are increasingly becoming an essential part of human life as the most effective and convenient communication tools not bounded by time and place. Mobile users accumulate rich experience of various services from mobile applications (e.g., iPhone apps, Google apps, etc), which run on the devices and/or on remote servers via wireless networks. The rapid progress of mobile computing (MC) becomes a powerful trend in the development of IT technology as well as commerce and industry fields. However, the mobile devices are facing many challenges in their resources (e.g., battery life, storage, and bandwidth) and communications (e.g., mobility and security). The limited resources significantly impede the improvement of service qualities. Cloudcomputing (CC) has been widely recognized as the next generation’s computing infrastructure. CC offers some advantages by allowing users to use infrastructure (e.g., servers, networks, and storages), platforms (e.g., middleware services and operating systems), and softwares (e.g., application programs) provided by cloud providers (e.g., Google, Amazon, and Sales force) at low cost. In addition, CC enables users to elastically utilize resources in an on-demand fashion. As a result, mobile applications can be rapidly provisioned and released with the minimal management efforts or service provider’s interactions. With the explosion of mobile applications and the support of CC for a variety of services for mobile users, mobile cloudcomputing (MCC) is introduced as an integration of cloudcomputing into the mobile environment. Mobile cloudcomputing brings new types of services and facilities for mobile users to take full advantages of cloudcomputing.
components. Network isolation in the cloud can be done using various techniques of network isolation such as VLAN, VXLAN, VCDNI, STT, or other such techniques. Applications are deployed in a multi-tenant environment and consist of components that are to be kept private, such as a database server which is to be accessed only from selected web servers and any other traffic from any other source is not permitted to access it. This is enabled using network isolation, port filtering, and security groups. These services help with segmenting and protecting various layers of application deployment architecture and also allow isolation of tenants from each other. The provider can use security domains, layer 3 isolation techniques to group various virtual machines. The access to these domains can be controlled using providers' port filtering capabilities or by the usage of more stateful packet filtering by implementing context switches or firewall appliances. Using network isolation techniques such as VLAN tagging and security groups allows such configuration. Various levels of virtual switches can be configured in the cloud for providing isolation to the different networks in the cloud environment.