Abstract: Learning resources or teaching materials that can help students learn independently are one of the important roles in the learning process. One of the goals in learning is that students can understand the concepts of learning material being delivered. The Mathematical module design of the Problem-based learning module to improve the creativethinkingskills of freedom class students had to develop the purpose of this study. This research uses the 4-D method that is designed, developed, developed, and disseminated. Data collection in this study used two instruments, namely interviews about the material discussed in the module and tests given to students. The results showed that there were no mathematical modules to improve students' creativethinking, so the research proved a problem-based learning module which was then validated by material experts and media experts. The results of the validation show that the design of this module can be carried out with revisions that are consistent with the advice given by material experts and media experts.
Education in the 21st century requires a variety of skills to be mastered by the learner. Learners are expected to prepare the ability to master a variety of skills, especially creativethinkingskills to be people getting ahead in life . Creativity is a result obtained from the process of interaction between the individual with the environment, other than that creativity is an essential element in building the quality of human resources . Creativity can be seen as a product of creative thought, while creative activities are activities geared to encourage or bring creativity to make students think creatively . Besides a term often used in the world of education is creativity can be defined as a person's ability to create something new both in concept and in the paper . The creativity of learners in their development is closely related to the way teachers teach, learning in an atmosphere of non-authoritarian, learners who learn appropriate their initiative, as well as the learners, are given the confidence to think and dare to put forward new ideas . One international study into the cognitive abilities of learners is TIMSS (Trends in Mathematics and Science Study) conducted by the IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement). According to the table, the average percentage of correct answers learners Indonesia compared to international learners in the domain of cognitive processes in TIMSS 2011, as presented in Table 1.
This research is a qualitative descriptive study. This study aims to describe the creativethinking skill of students of Mathematics Education class A discrete mathematics in solving numerical pattern problems with partition technique based on metacognitive ability and categorize their creativethinking level and collect student's answer result in solving numerical pattern problem with partition technique and findings of researchers in the monograph. There are several stages in this study that are arranged to obtain the desired research objectives that are a) Preliminary activities, determine the research area, research subjects, coordinate with Mathematics Education at jember university and determine the schedule of conducting research; b) Instrument making. At this stage the researcher makes four tests of creativethinking skill of the student that is creativethinking skill which contains test 1 about pattern discovery with previous partition discovery technique, test 2 about how to look for generalization formula, test 3 about student understanding on test 1 and test 2, test 4 about its implementation in graphs, interview guides and metacognition capability questionnaires. The student test contains the indicators of creativethinking made by the researcher. Interview guidelines are used to get some things about students' creativethinkingskills in doing the tests. While the questionnaire of metacognition ability is used to categorize students ability in 3 categories that is high, medium and low which is associated with student creative skill; in this case the metacognition questionnaire used is a psychological test of Metacognitive Awarenes Inventory (MAI) which consists of 38 revelations filled with students. This metacognition questionnaire was adopted from Schraw (in Arkham, 2014). All statements are 38 with 5 variations of answers for each item. Questionnaire of metacognition ability was analyzed according to questionnaire rubric with value 1-5. Then categorize the ability of high metacognition, moderate metacognition, low metacognition with the following calculations:
Abstract. The research aims to determine the “relationship between the scientific creativethinkingskills and creative problem solving and project development skills of candidate science teachers.” The research was performed with 24 teacher candidates in the control group and 24 teacher candidates in the experimental group in the second class of the Department of Science Teaching in a university in Istanbul Province. In the experimental group of the research, the laboratory program to be designed by the researchers on the basis of scientific discussion and research; and in the control group, the conventionally designed laboratory program were applied for 14 weeks. The research data was gained through “Self- Assessment for Creativity Questionnaire” to be developed by Raudsepp  and adapted by Sungur  into Turkish with the reliability value by Gülel ; two projects which were “the kite project”, “bridge project from spaghetti macaroni” and “personal interviews”. The conclusions to be reached by the research are in favour of the experimental group and the last application. While it was found that the project development processes of the candidate teachers in the experiment group had an important impact on their scientific creativity, the positive opinions of the candidate teachers were also found.
SMAN 1 Muara Badak 0.78 (high ), Yabis Bontang High School 0.79 (high), and SMAN 2 Utara Sangatta 0.77 (high). The four schools were also given questionnaires for student responses and teacher questionnaires to see the practicality of the learning tools that had been used. The results of the questionnaire analysis of responses from Advent Advent High School students were 84.49% (very practical), SMAN 1 Muara Badak 89.75% (very practical), Yabis Bontang High School 87.08% (very practical), and SMAN 2 Sangatta Utara 89 67% (very practical). The results of the questionnaire analysis responses of Balikpapan Adventist high school teachers were 100% (very practical), SMAN 1 Muara Badak 83.33% (very practical), Yabis Bontang High School 83.33% (very practical), and SMAN 2 Sangatta Utara 83.33 % (very practical). From the haril application that is done at Advent Advent High School, Muara Badak High School 1, Yabis Bontang High School, and SMAN 2 Sangatta by seeing the effectiveness value through high score gain values, it can be interpreted that the learning device products that have been developed are very effective. The results of the questionnaire analysis of student responses can be interpreted that the learning device oriented industry revolution 4.0 is very practical to be used in the learning process. Industrial revolution oriented learning tools products 4.0 which have been tested and implemented can be used throughout schools and can improve students' creativethinkingskills. From the research results obtained that the learning tools developed are very valid, effective and very practical so that development products can be used throughout the school.
The instrument to assess the creativethinking skill referred to indicators of creativethinkingskills by (Ismaimuza, 2010). The students' creativethinkingskills were assessed using a written test with five essay questions. The instrument has been validated by 2 expert lecturers and 2 education practitioners (Science teacher). The result of the trial was processed using Anates Software for essay questions before implemented to control and experimental classes. The result of validation performed by expert lecturers and educational practitioners showed the instruments reliable and valid to use.
Developing creativethinkingskills at an early age in individuals is considered important and necessary. Because it was seen that the creativethinkingskills of the children who encountered school rules for the first time and started to receive education with a standard curriculum were negatively affected. Particularly in the pre-school age, students with enriched education can make positive progress in the field of cognitive and social development. However, with this study, it was seen that the enriched workshop education had a positive effect on preschool children. Although there are many studies on creativethinkingskills in the literature, it is seen that there are not enough studies about developing creativethinkingskills of preschool age students or improving their creativity through enriched education. This gap in literature has been the mainstay of this study. In this context, this research has contributed to the literature which has both a sample application and limited number of studies on developing creativethinkingskills of preschool children. In addition to this, it is considered valuable that the research is designed in the form of mixed research using both experimental and qualitative methods. However, in the quantitative stage of this research, a single-group pre-test-posttest experimental design was used. The lack of a control group for comparison in a single-group pretest-posttest experimental design can be considered a limitation of this research. When evaluated from this perspective, pre-test and post-test experimental design with control group can be done and the results can be compared.
Based on the observations done at SDN Sidotopo II/49 Surabaya contained the same problems as happened in school in Indonesia in general, are still learning center teacher and students tend to be the object of which should be given by the teacher. So in learning more active teachers than students. The reason given by teachers is the limited time, facilities, learning environment, and the number of learners who are too much. These conditions lead to saturation in the students so it is less motivated in the learning process and less increase activity and creativity. Students are not taught to learn strategies to motivate yourself, pemebelajaran only do more dominant in aspects of knowledge and understanding of the concept, consequently students' creativethinkingskills among students are not able to grow on as expected. This is evident from analysis of the results of creativethinking skill tests carried out showed that the answers were written the students are limited to what is written in the book, there are no other answer that is beyond example in the book. It can be concluded that the creativethinkingskills of students in class V SDN Sidotopo II/49 Surabaya is still low.
In international studies conducted on peer instruction, it was demonstrated that the method had a significant effect on the student attendance, interest, achievements, comprehension, synthesis skills and integration (Trent, 1996; Rao & DiCarlo, 2000; Harvey, 2003). It was reported that student dialogues and discussions that takes place during peer instruction had positive effects on learning (Nicol & Boyle, 2003). Although it is predominantly used in in the field of science, the effects of peer instruction on philosophy and logic instruction and it was determined that it had significantly positive effects on comprehension, feedback, and critical and creativethinkingskills of most students (Butchart, Handfield & Restall, 2009). Consequently, the peer instruction method was applied in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, science, philosophy, logic, English language, computer sciences and engineering. In a study conducted by Dumont (2013) in Switzerland, it was reported that the English language course instructed by peer instruction method improved the self-esteem of the students and was effective on conceptual reasoning. However, this study was conducted with extracurricular assignments. In the study, an exercise application was conducted on the common language practice of the classroom with written responses through the instruction of the course using Wiki (a knowledge base that allows editing by all) in extracurricular assignments to improve teacher-student communications. In other words, the peer instruction method was implemented using Wiki in homework assignments. This was an application designed to assist students to increase their participation in peer discussions when doing their homework and to improve student comprehension. The Wiki was used to develop common pre-course work with more conventional instruction methods. In fact, at the end of the application, student scores were found to be satisfactorily high. There are also long-term studies conducted on the method. Crouch and Mazur (2001), for instance, conducted a ten-year long experimental study to reveal the effects of peer instruction more comprehensively and in depth. The study findings demonstrated that the ten-year long peer instruction improved both the conceptual thinking and quantitative problem solving skills of the students.
of mathematics is still unexplored wellStudents' creativethinking abilities are different from one another and require learning conditions that involve experience in the learner so that the potential for creativethinking can develop. All students with different academic abilities can develop their creativethinkingskills if the learning environment provides opportunities for the development of this thinkingskills ; Yusnaeni in  said stated that the learning environment is a necessary resource for creative thinking.The medium of learning in the learning process also greatly assist learners and teaching media in the form of Worksheet Students (E-E-LKPD) means for students to help understand and learn the material and can be studied independently and E-E-LKPD as the most effective media in learning because it is a medium which is very simpleWhen the principles and processes of Problem Based Learning (PBL) is checked, it became clear that the learning strategy to actualize the elements as proposed by Cole, Sugioka, and Yamagata- Lynch. PBL embodies the principle of learning based on starting when students are driven by as a group to find solutions to real-world problems , This has affected the effective learning at all educational levels. Education faces many challenges in terms of the performance of students, especially in mathematics and this is as a result of the introduction of new topics into the curriculum that teachers find difficult to teachSurya  said There are four steps in solving problems, namely: (1) understand the problem: in this activity is to formulate: what is known, what is being asked, whether the information is sufficient, condition (condition) must be met, restate the original problem in a more operational (solvable). (2) planning the solution: the activities carried out in this step
When the research based learning is considered for the development of the scientific process skills, the interaction of them will be quite effective on the science education . Likewise, the study of Ünal Çoban  indicated that the scientific process skills of the science teaching candidates dramatically changed with the laboratory activities on the basis of research and inquiry which are reinforced with the argumentation. The scientific process skills are necessary for the scientific creativity and creativethinking . Meador  emphasizes that thinking and discussing like a scientist are necessary for the scientific process skills and creativity, and the creativethinking and the science process skill are one in another, so the scientific creativity skills of the individuals who use the scientific process skills are better. Aktamış and Ergin  define the scientific process skills as the requirement for all people in the society to be a scientific reader and the people having these skills use them to solve the problems in their daily lives. They also state that the creativethinking is again important to notice the problems in the daily lives and the scientific process skills and scientific creativity interact with each other in creativethinking models. Liang  states that many researchers focus on the creativethinking, products and processes of the scientists in the researches on the scientific creativity, few researchers focus on the creativity of the students. Therefore, it is considered that the number of the researches on the scientific creativity of the students, teachers and candidate teachers should be increased. With reference to this point, the problem of the research to determine “The Impact of Scientific CreativeThinkingSkills on Scientific Process Skills”.
Model of book is an important part of the research process in developing creativethinkingskills. Considering the importance of creativethinkingskills, it is necessary to attempt developing such skills in the learning process by applying an appropriate and effective model. This research will develop the components of learning model that includes theoretical rationale, syntax, social systems, reaction principle, support systems, and the impact instructional companion. Learning model of science is developed with syntax orientation, excavation creative ideas, research, elaboration, presenting the results of the work, evaluation, and implementation (OPPEMEI) with indicators of creativethinkingskills fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration and evaluation. To achieve the goals, it should need a couple of steps, namely (1) analyzing and providing a rational basis to support the development of learning model for creativethinkingskills. (2) analyzing and constructing the theories that support the development of the model. Some synthesis theories for reviews are a constructivism theory, creativethinking theories, a motivation theory, a theory of Vygotsky (the theory of socio-cultural) and cognitive theory, (3) Analyzing the flow of thought decrease hypothetical OPPEMEI Model, (4) providing guidelines for the implementation of learning using OPPEMEI learning model, (5) conducting Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and (6) Revisions. Validity is assessed by expert judges in terms of content validity and construct validity. The construct validity includes the logic of stage model (syntax) and the support of relevant theory at each stage. Validation of the content reflects the state of the art or the strength of the device and the content materials are assessed based on the conformity with the applicable curriculum. The learning model is stated valid, if the expert judges and practical say that the model is developed based on strong and latest theoretical rationale and there is consistency between the components.
Based on observations and questionnaires from the overall survey results obtained by researchers, shows the ability of students to think creatively in the medium category. And also the results of interviews with the physics teacher that there is no specific form of assessment in observing and assessing students' creativethinking abilities. So far, the forms of assessment used are tests, and nontest instruments such as product assessment and practicum assessment, and student portfolios. All of the assessment instruments are combined in evaluating the half of student learning outcomes during the physics learning process. Whereas assessing the ability to think creatively, it is important to assess the process, rather than merely emphasizing cognitive test results (Lin & Wu, 2016). Thus, the form of assessment used by physics teachers at SMAN 6 Yogakarta is not effective and accurate enough to be used in generalizing students' creativethinkingskills in different schools.
Abstract- Model of problem posing learning to improve creativethinkingskills. The ability to think creatively is one of the 21st century learning skills, this study aims to describe students' creativethinking abilities in social studies learning by using themodel Problem Posing. The subjects in this study were 28 students of class VIII SMP Negeri 1 Tulangan in the 2019 school year. The researchers used primary data and data collection using creativethinking tests. The test is done before and after learning. The results showed that the results of the independent sample t-test posttest students' creativethinking ability showed that there were differences in the ability to think creatively between the experimental class and the control class after being given treatment. Based on theanalysis t-test , it was concluded that thelearning model problem posing influences students' creativethinking abilities. This research is useful for teachers to develop learning to be more innovative and creative that is fun in the classroom and increases the ability to think creatively. Thelearning model is problem posing implemented in the classroom because it can improve the ability to think creatively and understand how to deal with problems and conflicts that occur in society and is expected to optimize the ability to think creatively.
It is extremely important that to learn the thinkingskills for awaring of the problems, and producing solution to these problems in our lives. One of these thinkingskills is “creativethinking skill” (Karaduman and Yıldırım, 2017). It can be said that existing products and ideas put forward by this skill will provide institutional and social benefit when creativethinking skill is supported by cognitive, affective and psychomotor approaches. In this context, it can be thought that a teacher who has creativethinkingskills will be able to transfer this skill to her/his students by creating content and learning environment which is suitable for educational objectives. In addition to this, delivering “public service ads” which is produced in digital platforms as an educational learning material very easily to a wide community is very important development considering the advantages of technology. Considering the main purpose of training and supporting youngs in terms of educational objectives, it is possible to say that these digital materials could be designed and developed based on pedagogical approaches and design principles. The “public service ads”, can be presented on all kinds of digital platforms, are thought to be important for informing young people and their families in terms of providing social and individual benefits, and raising their awareness. Hence, in this study it is aimed to investigate the preservice teachers’ creativethinkingskills in terms of different dimensions, and to reveal the social benefits of “public service ads”, designed and developed as a product of creativethinkingskills by preservice teachers. Based on, this study attempted to examine how preservice teachers use creativethinkingskills in the process of developing “Public Service Ad” as a digital teaching material. To this end, the effect of fluency, originality, elaboration, abstractness of titles, and resistance to premature closure factors on the preservice teachers’ creativethinkingskills were investigated. In addition, opinions of the preservice teachers on their creativethinkingskills in the process of digital teaching material development were discussed.
For the EG, first of all, one of the researchers explained what creativethinking is and some of the techniques that students could use for improving their idea generation. The first technique was brainstorming. Sternberg and Williams (1996) stated that by asking your students to imagine, create or invent, you can persuade them to think creatively. For this purpose, two activities namely "idea link" and "sense making" were selected from a book named 101 activities for teaching creativity and problem solving by Vangundy (2005). First, students were assigned to do free association based on the sample for topics such as designing something new (e.g., book) or improving something (e.g., city). In one of these activities called Idea links, free association took place in a precise direction. This activity began with action verbs and went toward a topic which was a challenging problem linked to it. Students were taught that, if your problem is to design or improve something, you might set it up as follows:
Executed studies prove that, providing varieties in education, supporting of independent education, learning in group studies by trusting others, facilitate the creativity (Emmanuel et al., 2010; Hall and Mitchell, 2008; Lillyman et al., 2011; Hydo et al., 2007). Furthermore, in the studies executed by Karataş and Özcan (2010) about effect of creativethinking activities on students’ creativethinking and project development, it was determined that, methods such as brain storming and concept map contribute to the creativethinking of the students. It is stated that creativity has been an individual process and very different methods can be tried in order to improve creativethinking. For instance, it is stated that staying out of current rules, stating new thoughts against the generally accepted norms, having communication with new people other than people you interact with in your daily life, and staying away from classical thinking patterns, may increase point of view and creativity of individuals (Dolgun and Erdoğan, 2012). In order to develop creativity in nursing education, firstly environments, in which creativity is encouraged and promoted, should be emerged. In order to think creative, first the individual should be aware of creativity, than should be encouraged to creativethinking. The success in developing creativity is mostly dependent on learning about the subject of creativity (Tulum and Memiş, 2006). Like in all educational systems, in also nursing education, trainers as the most important corner stones of education have significant liabilities. Some behaviors and attitudes of trainers that take place in education process have important effects on emerging and developing of creativity (Tulum and Memiş, 2006). While searching for studies on creativity of nursing students, we were unable to reach any research articles. Nurses, operating in fast changing, developing and complicated structure, as being a member of profession, have to be individuals who may able to adopt changes and innovations, solve problems by using creativethinking, who can question, who can contribute to his profession by being affected from different disciplines and who may also think with criticism (Bahar, 2006). Thus, it is extremely important to use creativethinking in order to see possible results of nursing and to find valid answers and to expose creative actions as the nature of being professional (Şen et al., 2013).
Analysis of the results of the first question shows that there is a positive effect of the program prepared according to Therese's theory in the development of creativethinking among female students in physics, as the average calculation of female students indicates this and the values of "T" confirmed that the differences are statistically functioning in the answers of the students and in favor of the dimensional test, This is confirmed by previous studies and can justify the improvement in creativethinking and its three skills (fluency, flexibility, and authenticity) to the nature of the program and its various and enjoyable training activities, where the environment is equipped with the necessary tools to training activities and what enriches them, and also due to that The researcher's use of open questions that provoke the ability to solve problems in a scientific way and with new and non-routine types of thinking where the program helps to increase the abilities and mental processes by going through the stages prepared for the program, as the application of the theory of Therese led to the push of students towards research The survey contributed to the increased motivation of female students towards raising issues and employing information, which played a positive role in the development of creativethinking. In addition to providing a psychological environment characterized by spontaneity, self-confidence, automaticity, lack of complexity and rigidity of positions, the results of this study are consistent with the study of Thursday (2011) and Ibrahim (2013) and this enhances the effectiveness of the existing program. On The Theory of TRIZ in physics and its positive impact on the development of creativethinkingskills.
Teachers are protective of their craft and struggle to separate themselves from their profession (Craft, 1998: p. 245). This in itself creates a major hindrance to their understanding of creativethinking. Teachers take great ownership in what and how they teach, which sometimes creates a narrowing view in what they want students to create (Aljughaiman & Mowrer-Reynolds, 2005: p. 29). If teachers go in with an idea of what they want their students to achieve, and use that vision to assess what the student has created, then they are limiting the creativ- ity that is happening within the classroom. Further to this, if teachers do not have a self belief about the creativi- ty process then it is a teacher’s own beliefs about the importance of promoting student creativity that is hinder- ing the creative process (Baysal, Arkan, & Yıldırım, 2010: p. 4251; Beghetto, 2006: p. 151) . Additionally, teachers have very little self-confidence when it comes to teaching creativethinkingskills (Fryer & Collings, 1991: p. 218). This could be because they are unsure of the definition, doubtful of what is involved or afraid to take risks with the curriculum as it could lead to judgment by peers and authoritative figures (Al-Nouh et al., 2014: p. 87; Craft, 1998: p. 249). These self-limitations are clouding teachers’ own judgments about the creative process and cementing them into practice.