dielectric microstrip patch antennas

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DESIGN OF MICROWAVE FREQUENCY ANTENNA FOR BODY AREA NETWORK

DESIGN OF MICROWAVE FREQUENCY ANTENNA FOR BODY AREA NETWORK

Abstract: In recent advances there have been a growing demand for ultra wide technology. One of the most promising areas in UWB applications is Wireless Body Area Network (WBANs). Flexible fabric antennas are best suited in WBANs, which can be easily attached to a piece of clothing. For flexible antennas, textile materials form interesting substrates, because fabric antennas can be easily integrated into cloths. Textile materials generally have a very low dielectric constant, which reduces the surface wave losses and improves the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. If the antenna is made of textile material they will not make any harm to human body and will be totally wearable. This paper presents the design a flexible fabric textile antenna for (WBANs) operating in the frequency band of 2.39GHz to 2.5 GHz. The antenna consists in a simple metallic circular ring with slots in between. The performance investigation of circular ring microstrip patch antenna on three different dielectric substrates of same thickness or height (0.3mm).All these antennas are having different feeding port placement. The three dielectric materials which are investigated are cotton, cordura, 100%polyester. The output parameters of all these antennas are simulated using IE3D software. Among the three metallic circular ring antenna, antenna with cotton as a dielectric substrate gives optimum results in terms of Directivity, Gain, Bandwidth and Efficiency.
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Design and Development of Microstrip Patch fed Dielectric Resonator Antennas for 8 -16 GHz frequency

Design and Development of Microstrip Patch fed Dielectric Resonator Antennas for 8 -16 GHz frequency

From the detailed study, it is clear that the proposed antennas are quite simple in design and fabrication and good in enhancing the impedance bandwidth. A wide bandwidth is obtained by increasing the radius of hemi-sphere dielectric resonator placed at the centre of rectangular microstrip patch. The experimental results show that HSDRA with r =1.5 cm offer a maximum bandwidth of 55.36% without changing the radiation characteristics at the resonating frequency and shows improvement in gain which is found to be 12.57 dB. The proposed antennas are useful for modern broadband wireless communication systems and radar applications in the range of 8-16 GHz.
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Performance Analysis of Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna With Dielectric Superstrates

Performance Analysis of Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna With Dielectric Superstrates

Circular patch microstrip antennas are becoming a popular for portable wireless system because they are light weight, low cost, low volume, easily manufacturable and also other characteristic such as low profile and conformable due this reason antenna can use airborne and spacecraft application. In several application circular patch microstrip antenna and arrays require a dielectric superstrate over radiating elements to provide protection from heat, rain, physically damaged and naturally formed(ice layers) during flight or severe condition[1], [2]. The antenna usually placed beneath plastic cover or protective dielectric superstrate. Such dielectric superstrate over microstrip antenna shift the resonant frequency and also slight changing the values of other parameters such as bandwidth, beam-width, gain etc. Several researchers have studied the effect of dielectric superstrate on the resonant frequency of circular microstrip patch antenna [1] - [24] with numerical method. All of this method is complex and time consuming. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of dielectric superstrates with and without on the performance characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna such as bandwidth, beam-width, gain, resonant frequency etc. The obtained results shows that the resonant frequency will be shifted to lower side by placing superstrate above substrate, while other parameter have slight variation in their values. In particular, the resonant frequency increases with dielectric constant of the superstrates. In addition, it has also been observed that the return loss and VSWR increase, however bandwidth and gain decreases with the dielectric constant of the superstrates.
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Conformal Wideband Microstrip Patch Antennas on Cylindrical Platforms

Conformal Wideband Microstrip Patch Antennas on Cylindrical Platforms

The characteristics of a wideband conformal U-slot microstrip patch antenna were investigated and compared to its planar counterpart. The antenna parameters of the conformal structure were varied to determine the structure that resulted in a wider impedance bandwidth than its planar counterpart. In particular, the conformal antenna had a bandwidth of about 50%, which was 7% more than the planar structure and cross polarization of − 15 dB that was 5 dB smaller than its planar counterpart. The measured frequency response and radiation patterns of the conformal wideband antenna closely resembled the simulated ones. In conclusion, conformal U-slot patch antennas can be effectively designed to further enhance their impedance bandwidth and cross-polarization characteristics. With the additive printing technology, such conformal wideband antennas can be easily fabricated on curved, flexible dielectric materials for structural health monitoring applications.
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Designing of High Gain Hemispherical Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Electromagnetic Band-Gap Structure

Designing of High Gain Hemispherical Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Electromagnetic Band-Gap Structure

get trapped along the substrate. Due to this trapped electromagnetic energy, the efficiency and gain of the antenna reduces significantly. A significant amount of energy gets trapped into the substrate, resulting in unwanted surface wave loss, which if suppressed, can enhance the gain of antenna. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the effects of surface waves [4]-[10]. One approach suggested, is the synthesized substrate, which lowers the effective dielectric constant of the substrate either under or around the patch [4], [5]. Other approaches are to use parasitic elements [6], [7] or to use a reduced surface-wave antenna [8]-[10]. Electromagnetic band-gap structures, also known as photonic crystals [11], are commonly used to improve the antenna performance [12]-[18]. The surface waves can be suppressed by creating electromagnetic band-gap structures in the substrate. These structures have the ability to open a band-gap, which is a frequency range for which the propagation of electromagnetic waves is forbidden i.e., EBG blocks the surface waves from propagating in a certain band-gap. Reduction of mutual coupling and co-site interference are other benefits of these EBG antennas.The surface wavesare reduced by the EBG structure, but the antenna gain enhancement is also due to the coupling between the dielectric resonator antenna and the EBG structure. By appropriately using these artificial materials (EBG structures), the antenna aperture efficiency is significantly improved without increasing the antenna size. Several studies have shown that EBG structures, when combined with microstrip antennas or dielectric resonator antennas, can significantly enhance its performance in terms of directionality, gain, bandwidth, return loss and reduction of size etc.[19]. Due to incorporation of resonant artificial materials, the surface-waves are radiated by the antenna and add up the gain of antenna. Within the band-gap, around the resonant frequency of the antenna, it does not allow surface-waves to propagate in the substrate. As a result, the whole radiations go up in the vertical direction and enhance the gain. In every design using EBG structure, the antenna is designed with its resonant frequency lying in the band-gap of EBG substrate. Various microstrip patch antennas as well as dielectric resonator antennas have been designed by the researchers in past few years with EBG substrates for the gain enhancement.
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Performance of a Rectangular microstrip patch antenna on different dimensions

Performance of a Rectangular microstrip patch antenna on different dimensions

With the wide spread proliferation of wireless communication technology in recent years, the demand for compact, low profile and broadband antennas has increased significantly. To meet the requirement, microstrip patch antennas (MPAs) have been proposed. MPAs are widely used in wireless communication applications because of their low profile, lightweight, low cost and compatibility with integrated circuits (Guney and Sirikaya, 2004). However, the conventional MPA has a disadvantage of a narrow bandwidth. There are numerous and well-known methods of increasing bandwidth of this type of antennas, and amongst the most common ways varying the different dimensions of the radiating patch of antenna.However, the bandwidth and the size of an antenna are generally mutually conflicting properties, that is, improvement of one of the characteristics normally results in degradation of the other. A thick dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is more desirable as it provides better efficiency, larger bandwidth, and better radiation (Indrasen Singh et al,2011).
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Study the Effects of  Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) Substrate on Two Patch Microstrip Antenna

Study the Effects of Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) Substrate on Two Patch Microstrip Antenna

A defect state is created in the forbidden gap where an electromagnetic mode is allowed and localization of the energy occurs [3]. A 2- DEBG antenna structure is fabricated with a defect point in the EBG substrate, placed under the patch location. This point defect is used to localize the field within the defect region, hence, confining the energy under the patch. The energy confinement leads to a more efficient antenna as well as providing a simpler method of fabrication. For small number of holes to investigate the effects of a EBG structure as in the previous cases are used, but now with defect with dielectric constant of 10.6. Fig. 17 shows Photo of microstrip antennas with horizontal and vertical defect EBG structure (defect size of 5 mm × 8 mm). The computed results by using HFSS TM are shown in Fig. 18. The presence
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Design and Development of High Gain Patch Antenna Array for ISM Applications

Design and Development of High Gain Patch Antenna Array for ISM Applications

The concept of microstrip patch antennas basically originated in 1953. Printed antenna is the other name given to microstrip antenna. The printed antenna or microstrip antenna when designed as an array, Deschamps says that one can feed this array with microstrip line feeding. A microstrip patch antenna usually made up of three layers, a conducting patch or radiating patch, substrate which will have specific dielectric constant and a ground plane. The construction appears like a substrate is sandwiched between a conducting patch and a ground plane. This radiating patch can either planar or non-planar in geometry on one side of the dielectric substrate and a ground plane. These types of antennas are used where only semi-hemispherical coverage is required such as for narrow band links. These types of microstrip patch antennas are popularly known as ‘printed resonant antenna’. This papers also includes the different feeding mechanisms used. As this paper deal with theoretical survey and performance analysis of microstrip antenna, the author says that microstrip antennas have evolved from single patch can extend to complex multilayer configuration. Microstrip antenna as a low profile antenna can meet the needs of most electronic warfare (EW), communication and surveillance applications [2].
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Review and Survey of Broadband Microstrip Patch Antennas

Review and Survey of Broadband Microstrip Patch Antennas

In multilayered configuration patches are placed over different dielectric substrates and they are stacked on each other. Based on the coupling mechanism, these configurations are of two types electromagnetically-coupled or aperture-coupled. Electromagnetic coupled microstrip antenna one or more patches are located on different dielectric layers. If two- layered configuration of broadband microstrip patch antenna is analyzed then any one of them may be fed and other is electromagnetically coupled. Patch dimensions and dielectric constant of substrate may be different where as resonant frequency is closer to each other for obtaining broad bandwidth [14]. In aperture coupling, the field is coupled from the microstrip feed line placed on the other side of
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Microstrip Patch Antenna

Microstrip Patch Antenna

Therefore, antennas play a paramount role in an optimal design of the wearable or hand-held units used in these services. There are various types of antenna that can be used for wearable system, but the primary concern type in this project is microstrip patch antenna. The microstrip antenna is one of the fastest growing segments in the telecommunication industry. Microstrip antennas are low profiles, conformable to planar and non-planar surfaces, simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed-circuit technology. This type of antenna consists of dielectric substrate, radiated patch and the ground plane. However, microstrip antenna also has disadvantages which narrow bandwidth and low gain.
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Stacked Ring Coupled Rectangular Microstrip Antenna with Slots

Stacked Ring Coupled Rectangular Microstrip Antenna with Slots

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the effect of stacking on the performance of a ring coupled rectangular microstrip patch antenna. The antennas have been designed at a frequency of 2 GHz and they have been simulated using Mentor Graphics IE3D simulation software. The substrate used in the design is FR-4 glass epoxy which has a dielectric constant of 4.2. The operating frequency range is from 1-6 GHz. The antennas have been fabricated and the measured results are compared with the simulated results. The measured results are in agreement with their counterparts. The ring coupled rectangular microstrip antenna stacked on ring coupled rectangular microstrip antenna with U-slot on ring yields the widest bandwidth of 9.635%. The ring coupled rectangular microstrip antenna stacked on ring coupled rectangular microstrip antenna with U-slot on ring and patch yields the lowest resonant frequency of 1.27 GHz; thereby producing the best size reduction of 18.862%.
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Inkjet-Printed Wearable Antennas for Hyperthermia Treatment.

Inkjet-Printed Wearable Antennas for Hyperthermia Treatment.

thickness will also result in large dielectric and surface wave losses, and the rectangular microstrip patch antenna will stop resonating for substrate thickness greater than 0.11λ 0 due to inductive reactance of the probe feed (Garge et al., 2001). For the dielectric constant, a smaller value will increase the radiated power by allowing the larger fringing field at the patch periphery (Kumar & Ray, 2003). However, it can also increase the size of the patch (Bahl & Bhartia, 1980; Balanis, 1989; Hammerstad, 1975). The loss tangent is the parameter that quantifies the loss of the substrate, and a substrate with a larger loss tangent creates a higher dielectric loss (Thierauf, 2011). Therefore, the thickness and dielectric constant of a substrate are chosen by the required physical and electrical properties, and a lower loss tangent is preferred for a better antenna performance.
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Software defined antenna testing

Software defined antenna testing

Microstrip patch directional antennas have been used in many applications [14] - [16], because of their low profile, conformability, light weight, easy connectivity (feed), cheap realization and attractive radiation characteristics. A microstrip patch antenna is a wide-beam, narrowband antenna which is created by etching the antenna element (patch) in a metal trace material bonded to an isolating dielectric substrate [17]. Most physical realizations feature a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), with a continuous metal layer attached to the opposite side of the substrate which creates a ground plain. Common microstrip antenna shapes are square, rectangular, circular, elliptical, but any continuous shape is possible. The Fig.2 shows the mechanical drawing of a rectangular patch antenna.
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Comparative Analysis of Microstrip Patch Antennas of different Feeding Techniques

Comparative Analysis of Microstrip Patch Antennas of different Feeding Techniques

Geometry- The microstrip patch antenna (MPA) has basically four elements which includes a radiating patch, feed line, ground surface and a substrate. The substrate is an intermediate between radiating patch on one side of the substrate and a ground on the other side of substrate as shown in Figure 1.[3] The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and it can take any of the possible shapes, but for simplification of analysis, the patch is generally kept square, rectangular, circular in shape. The radiating patch and the feed lines are generally photo etched on the dielectric substrate.[6]
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DESIGN OF A WIDEBAND INSET FEED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

DESIGN OF A WIDEBAND INSET FEED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

Microstrip antennas are used for various wireless applications due to their attractive features such as low profile, directive, high transmission frequency, low fabrication cost, light weight, conformal and planner structure and ease of integration with microwave circuit [1]. However microstrip antenna has a drawback of low bandwidth and low gain. The bandwidth can be increased by cutting slots and stacking configuration and Gain can be increased by using different patch elements in an array to achieve maximum radiation characteristics [1]. In this design of microstrip antenna a conducting patch is formed on a dielectric sheet of glass epoxy having dielectric constant of 4.2 and ground plane is formed on the back side of the sheet. In this antenna design the return loss bandwidth achieved 31.84% and maximum radiation efficiency obtained 95%.
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A Novel Design and Analysis Of Circularly Etched Uwb Antenna for L, C And X Band Applications

A Novel Design and Analysis Of Circularly Etched Uwb Antenna for L, C And X Band Applications

Ultra wideband (UWB) system has been considered and almost recommended for applications in wireless communication due to its capability to provide high speed. A microstrip patch antenna consist of a radiating patch which is placed above the dielectric substrate and a ground plane is placed on the other side of dielectric substrate Microstrip antennas having several advantages such as light weight, low cost, thin profile, conformal to a shaped surface so it can be used in several applications As in aircraft, satellite and wireless communication.
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Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Microstrip Patch Antenna Miniaturization

Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Microstrip Patch Antenna Miniaturization

Recently, several methods have been used to optimize patch antennas with varying success, such as using a dielectric substrate of high permittivity [1], Defected Microstrip Structure (DMS) [2], Defected Ground Structure (DGS) at the ground plane [3] or a combination of them, and various existing optimization algorithms such as particle swarm optimization (PSO) [4] and genetic algorithm [5–7]. The latter is one of the global optimization algorithms that have been used widely in the past by antenna designers for the optimization of the patch shape and size in order to achieve better overall performance of the antenna.
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Effects of Using Different Substrates on the Performance of an Inset-Fed Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Effects of Using Different Substrates on the Performance of an Inset-Fed Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

8.7dB and also lowest loss with a return loss of -19.8dB. This low loss is also confirmed by the VSWR value of 1.2. It is also evident that the gain of the antenna reduces as the value of the dielectric constant increases, from 8.7dB for Foam to 2.2dB for FR4, when all other design parameters like the frequency and the thickness are kept constant. This result shows that the lower the dielectric constant the better is the gain and the radiation efficiency. Also the result shows that microstrip patch antenna exhibit a wide radiation pattern and high directivity.
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Investigation of a Cross-Slot-Coupled Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Hybrid Dielectric Resonator Antenna

Investigation of a Cross-Slot-Coupled Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Hybrid Dielectric Resonator Antenna

The dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) [1, 2] has a number of inherent advantages, such as small size, wide bandwidth, and low loss. These features make DRA an attractive candidate for many applications. With the development of wireless communication systems, DRAs with dual-band performance have been widely investigated [3–5]. Hybrid DRA [6–12] technology is a viable candidate for realizing dual-band operation. A direct approach to designing a hybrid DRA is to introduce an extra slot resonator [9]. However, this method will lead to a complicated antenna configuration. A simpler approach to designing a hybrid DRA is to take advantage of the resonance of the feeding structure. In [10], a compact wideband DRA was obtained by merging the resonances of the slot coupled DRA and the DR loaded slot. In [11], an ultra-wideband hybrid antenna was proposed by combining the annular DRA with a monopole that simultaneously acts as a feed structure and a radiator. And a dual-band hybrid DRA fed by a coplanar waveguide has been reported in [12].
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Microstrip Patch Antennas for Broadband Indoor Wireless Systems

Microstrip Patch Antennas for Broadband Indoor Wireless Systems

Abstract— The advantages of microstrip antennas have made them a perfect candidate for use in the wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. Though bound by certain disadvantages, microstrip patch antennas can be tailored so they can be used in the new high-speed broadband WLAN systems. This paper concentrates on manufacture of broadband microstrip patch antennas for the 2.45 GHz ISM band and possible implementation using adhesive copper tape in research scenarios. In this paper, two broadband microstrip patch antennas were manufactured to adequately cover the 2.4- 2.5 GHz frequency band. A test procedure was also devised to compare the area coverage mappings, in term of path loss, of the in- house built antennas to the commercial broadband antennas. The testing show, the in-house antennas demonstrate larger bandwidth response compared to the commercial product but commercial product has a larger beam width and illustrate a better coverage. The presented paper is used to design efficient and reliable broadband patch antennas showing signs of directivity leading to adequate area coverage and sufficient bandwidth usage.
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