to locations where health promoting or health suppress- ing activities occur. The idea of place as a determinant of health status has recently become a crucial focus of national population health initiatives [1,2]. An increasing number of empirical studies in medical geography and epidemiology have determined that characteristics of place are associated with variations in health-related behaviours and outcomes, even after individual-level attributes and behaviours are taken into account [3-5]. Although statistical associations between characteristics of place and health can be demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these relationships remain more elusive. The significant challenges for place-based health research are to ensure that places are accurately rep- resented spatially, and to identify those aspects of context that are related to variations in health and amenable to modification. This study focuses on the more practical issue of spatial bounding as a necessity to operationalize the concept of place. We introduce the development and testing of a wearable globalpositioningsystem (GPS) data logger for the purpose of objectively measuring the spatial extent of an individual's location over time. Examination of time-location data allows for inference on the types of activities associated with health status.
Today, the system is fully operational, providing positioning and navigation service to virtually anyone anywhere on the globe. In a sense, it has allowed us to give every centimeter of the surface of the planet its own unique address that can be understood by anybody through the use of a universal geocoordinate system. It could be in the not too distant future that you’ll find yourself inviting a friend to your home by saying something like “. . . sure, come on over. My address is 39°45’ 16.174634”N by you can’t miss it.” And the fact is they couldn’t, because on the entire planet there is no other place that shares that same address. It is yours, yours alone, and there’s no mistaking it. Seem far- fetched? We’ll see. It’s hard to argue with the level of success that the globalpositioningsystem is currently enjoying. As we’ll discuss later, the costs of receivers are plummeting. They have become consumer items that, at the low end, cost less than the typical low-priced VCR. So... why not?
Abstract: Coastal zone of Malaysia has a vital role in socio-economic and environmental in pursuing the country development. However, it constantly faces a threat from coastal erosion. Hence, this study focused on developing the ocean monitoring system consists of a buoy with GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) technology, reference station and data analysis techniques. Based on the verification with slider machine, this system has been able to provide high accuracy result less than 0.5 cm compared to the standard value of slider machine. This study presents the capabilities of GPS buoy to observe wave data at Strait of Malacca by using high precision kinematic positioning approach. The GPS buoy data obtained from this observation were processed through a precise, medium-range differential kinematic technique. The RMS error from data analysis technique is less than 0.0016 m. Validation with Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM) automatic tide gauges have found both methods agreed on tidal pattern with small discrepancy of less than 10 cm. Encouraging results were also obtained when the tidal observations off coast Senggarang was done. The tidal pattern for each observation has successfully recorded with acceptable accuracy when compared with manual observation. The kinematic coordinates further used to calculate the magnitude of the Power Spectral Density (PSD). PSD analysis function able to shows the strength of the variations (energy) as a function of frequency. The tidal changes and monsoon wind have been found to greatly influence the wave energy as shown in the PSD analysis. From the test result, GPS buoy and data processing technique promises a total solution as a complete ocean wave monitoring solution.
A vehicle tracking system consists of an electronic device installed on a vehicle so that it can be tracked by its owner or a third-party for its position. Most of the vehicle tracking system uses GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) to get an accurate reading of the vehicle position. Communication components such as cellular GlobalSystem Mobile (GSM) and satellite transmitter will be combined to transmit the vehicle’s position to remote user. Vehicle’s information can be viewed by using a software on a computer.
The GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) is used extensively in both the military and civilian communities for such diverse activities as navigation, surveying, remote sensing, asset management and precise timing. The tremendous popularity of GPS has stemmed from the low cost and small size of modern GPS receivers, and from the high accuracy and reliability of the system. The second factor has also resulted in GPS being considered as a sole means of navigation for critical safety of life applications such as precision approach and landing for air craft and narrow channel navigation for ships.
The globalpositioningsystem is a satellite-based navigation system consisting of a network of 24 orbiting satellites that are eleven thousand nautical miles in space and in six different orbital paths. GPS has become an indispensable aid to navigation around the world, and an important tool for map-making and land surveying. GPS also provides a precise time reference used in many applications including scientific study of earthquakes, and synchronization of telecommunications networks There are many applications of GPS that are widely being used. This project aims at another possible application of GPS which can aid small scale fishermen from accidentally crossing over into international waters. This project aims at another possible application of GPS which can aid small scale fishermen from accidentally crossing over into international waters.
An automated system becomes an important key to ease the processing and analysis of data collected by a network of GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) stations. Malaysia, which has 12 GPS active stations that located throughout the country, requires the time consuming data processing tasks to be performed automatically. (Satirapod et al., 2000)
Abstract. The efficient implementation of positioning algo- rithms is investigated for GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS). In order to do the positioning, the pseudoranges between the receiver and the satellites are required. The most commonly used algorithm for position computation from pseudoranges is non-linear Least Squares (LS) method. Linearization is done to convert the non-linear system of equations into an iterative procedure, which requires the solution of a linear system of equations in each iteration, i.e. linear LS method is applied iteratively. CORDIC-based approximate rotations are used while computing the QR decomposition for solv- ing the LS problem in each iteration. By choosing accu- racy of the approximation, e.g. with a chosen number of optimal CORDIC angles per rotation, the LS computation can be simplified. The accuracy of the positioning results is compared for various numbers of required iterations and various approximation accuracies using real GPS data. The results show that very coarse approximations are sufficient for reasonable positioning accuracy. Therefore, the presented method reduces the computational complexity significantly and is highly suited for hardware implementation.
This project is about the design and implementation of a Vehicle Tracking System using GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) and GlobalSystem Mobile (GSM). It comprises of integration between a GPS receiver, a microcontroller and a GSM module. This combination of technologies will produce a tracking system. This tracking system integrates two systems which are the coordinates extracted from the GPS receiver and control capability using command through the GSM module. This project can be divided into two main parts which are hardware and software. The hardware includes the GPS, the microcontroller wiring connection and its integration with the GSM module. The software includes developing the microcontroller source code and GSM message command. For the end result, a user can use short messaging system (SMS) from their phone to contact and identify the location if the vehicle is stolen.
Real-Time GPS Networks: Continuous GlobalPositioningSystem (CGPS) has been used in geodesy to identify long-term tectonic deformation and static displacements such as inter- seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic deformation. . GPS stations can run for long periods of times without need for frequent maintenance and can communicate with the data collection points using various connection types such as Wi-Fi, modems and phone lines or fiber-optic lines. Over the last 15 years networks of individual GPS stations (monuments) have been deployed along the active fault lines, and data from these are continuously being collected by several organizations. One of the first organizations to use GPS for crustal deformation monitoring was the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) . As first conceived SCIGN did not operate in real-time. Data were collected at a 15-30 s sampling rate and retrieved and analyzed every 24 hours to compute slowly time-varying station positions. The Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC), a SCIGN collaborator, is in the process of upgrading SCIGN and PBO CGPS stations to real-time operations as part of the California Real Time Network (CRTN) (Figure 2), as a collaboration of Orange and San Diego Counties and the southern California Metropolitan Water District. Data are collected once per second and stations positions are computed on-the-fly with a latency of less than a second. Real-time data are used for seismic and structural monitoring, hazards mitigation, and by land surveyors who require cm- level real-time positioning accuracies. For computational efficiency SOPAC divides CRTN into
The GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) is a space based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and consists of a constellation of 24 satellites which are freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver on hand. It provides location of the users at anywhere on the earth where is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites at the space, it meant it offers a reliable and efficient method for three- dimensional survey: X, Y and Z. Nowadays, GPS has been fully deployed and useful tool for commercial uses, scientific uses, tracking, and surveillance. Beside, GPS is also being used in car navigation, topographical and cadastral survey in land surveying, deformation studies for stability of structure, and vessel navigation in hydrographical survey because GPS provide real time or/and post processing result of positioning. More researches have been carried out in order to improve and enhance the precision and accuracy of GPS. With this contribution and GPS to be played an important role in high precision geodetic surveying, such as deformation survey/monitoring to monitor the stability and safety of deformable bodies or structures.
Nowadays, GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) has become a useful tool for the positioning of object. Robustness of GPS equipments, its reliability and its ease-of- use are some of the factors why GPS system is popular in survey works. With emerging of new GPS technology, many positioning methods and sophisticated software have been developed to collect field data efficiently whether for real-time purposes or post-processing purposes. Thus, GPS technology has became more progressive and has been applied in survey jobs, engineering surveys and other mapping purposes. GPS is beneficial in enabling deformation monitoring.
Today, GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) is widely used in almost every aspect of our daily life. Commonly, users utilize the technology to track the position of a vehicle or an object of interest. They also use it to safely navigate to the destination of their choice. As a result, there is countless number of GPS based tracking application that has been developed. The GPS is made up of three parts: satellites orbiting the Earth; control and monitoring stations on the Earth; and the GPS receivers owned by users. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space that are picked up and identified by GPS receivers. Each GPS receiver then provides three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus the time. Furthermore GPS consist of three segments as shown in Fig. 2, the space segment, the control segment and the user segment.
The GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) is a U.S. space-based radionavigation system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to civilian users on a continuous worldwide basis -- freely available to all. GPS provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time. Basically GPS works by using four GPS satellite signals to compute positions in three dimensions (and the time offset) in the receiver clock. GPS provides accurate location and time information for an unlimited number of people in all weather, day and night, anywhere in the world. Anyone who needs to keep track of where he or she is, to find his or her way to a specified location, or know what direction and how fast he or she is going can utilize the benefits of the globalpositioningsystem. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids, are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS.
ABSTRACT- Bellman ford Algorithm is used to find the shortest path from one node to another node in a graph. It can be applied on negative weights. In this paper, Globalpositioningsystem is used for adding a new functionality in Bellman ford algorithm. In this paper, using GlobalPositioningSystem the position parameter is added in the Bellman ford algorithm. From this current position is retrieved at any point. By using this current position, the distance can be determined from one node to another node. For this an algorithm is proposed and the algorithm is compared with Dijkstra’s algorithm which is also used to find out shortest path.
GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) monitoring provides a powerful tool to help Community Supervision Officers (CSOs) enforce offenders’ compliance with supervision and treatment requirements. CSOSA uses GPS as a tool to enhance the supervision strategies employed by the CSOs. In addition to intensively supervising offenders placed on GPS through office visits, home and employment verifications, and drug testing, GPS is used to closely monitor the movements and whereabouts of offenders placed on GPS. GPS also is used to establish curfews and exclusionary zones where offenders are not permitted to enter.
GlobalPositioningSystem or GPS is a constellation of 27 satellites orbiting the earth at about 12000 miles. These satellites are continuously transmitting a signal and anyone with a GPS receiver on earth can receive these transmissions at no charge. By measuring the travel time of signals transmitted from each satellite, a GPS receiver can calculate its distance from the satellite. Satellite positions are used by receivers as precise reference points to determine the location of the GPS receiver. If a receiver can receive signals from at least 4 satellites, it can determine latitude, longitude, altitude and time. If it can receive signals from 3 satellites, it can determine latitude, longitude and time. The satellites are in orbits such that at any time anywhere on the planet one should be able to receive signals from at least 4 satellites. The basic GPS service provides commercial users with an accuracy of 100 meters, 95% of the time anywhere on the earth. Since May of 2000, this has improved to about 10 to 15 meters due to the removal of selective availability.
Water vapor plays an important role in weather forecasting and climate monitoring, particularly in low-latitude regions which contain large amount and inhomogeneous water vapor. The GlobalPositioningSystem (GPS) has the ability to provide observations of water vapor continuously and more frequently for wide areas with high accuracy in all weather conditions. The GPS continuously operating reference station (CORS) data processing allows the estimation of zenith path delay (ZPD) from the GPS CORS network and will be further processed into integrated water vapor (IWV) using surface meteorological data. This research aims to study the potential of using the GPS for meteorology applications in low-latitude regions. In this study, the ZPD values from Australia and Peninsular Malaysia were derived in order to investigate the variability of water vapor in these two regions. Besides, the continuous result of the GPS-derived IWV assessment with radiosonde-derived IWV for one year data in Peninsular Malaysia are also discussed. Based on the analysis of the ZPD from the two regions, the water vapor is high and its change is rapid in Peninsular Malaysia. The quality of the ZPD obtained was compared to the International GNSS Service (IGS) troposphere products; the root mean square (RMS) errors of the GPS-derived ZPD are in the range of 4 to 12 mm. Meanwhile, the large amount of IWV and its variability in Peninsular Malaysia shows a close relationship with the monsoon seasons in this area. Four GPS stations close to radiosonde stations were assessed; the RMS errors of the GPS-derived IWV are 3.447 kg/m 2 , 3.786 kg/m 2 , 4.122 kg/m 2 and 4.253kg/m 2 and their linear correlation
Time activity data have traditionally been collected by recall telephone interviews or activity logs recorded by study participants [13,14]. However, these methods are limited by accuracy of recall, reliability, and compliance . Recently, new techniques have been used to collect time-location data, such as the use of portable globalpositioningsystem (GPS) devices to track people ’ s time- location or commuting patterns with or without corre- sponding participant diary information [15-22]. GPS- based tracking presents an enormous opportunity for improving our understanding of the space-time activities of individuals and how they influence environmental exposure and health outcomes. It offers many advan- tages over traditional methods including near-continu- ous location tracking, high temporal resolution, and minimum reporting burden for participants . How- ever, barriers exist for extracting accurate time activity patterns for human subjects from raw GPS data because they are not consistently reliable due to errors caused by satellite or receiver issues, atmospheric and iono- spheric disturbances, multipath signal reflection, or sig- nal loss or blocking . The multipath problem occurs mainly in urban areas where tall buildings and struc- tures reflect satellite signals many times before they reach a GPS device, leading to GPS coordinate errors .