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Performance Evaluation of Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector and Optimized Link State Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Performance Evaluation of Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector and Optimized Link State Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Abstract— Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are self-sufficient networks that can work without the need for centralized controls, pre-configuration to the routes or advance infrastructures. The nodes of a MANET are autonomously controlled, which allow them to act freely in a random manner within the MANET. The nodes can leave their MANET and join other MANETs at any time. These characteristics, however, might negatively affect the performance of the routing protocols and the overall topology of the networks. Subsequently, MANETs comprise specially designed routing protocols that reactively and proactively perform the routing. This paper evaluates and compares the performance of two routing protocols which are Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) in MANET environment. The study includes implementing a simulation to examine the performance of the routing protocols based on the variables of the nodes’ number and network size. The evaluation results show that the AODV outperforms the OLSR in most of the simulated cases. The results further show that the number of nodes and network size has a great impact on the Throughput (TH), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), and End-to-End delay (E2E) of the network.
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networks . Routing algorithm can be classified as distance vector and link state. Among distance vector and link state routing, distance vector routing algorithm forwards the information to each and every node from

networks . Routing algorithm can be classified as distance vector and link state. Among distance vector and link state routing, distance vector routing algorithm forwards the information to each and every node from

This paper is organized as follows: Section II introduces routing methods such as link state routing and distance vector routing. Section III discusses on count-to-infinity problem. Section IV gives solutions to count- to-infinity problem in wired networks. Section V explores the solutions to count-to-infinity problem in wireless network.

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Analysis of Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Using UDP & TCP Traffics in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

Analysis of Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Using UDP & TCP Traffics in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

improvement of altered adaptation of the Optimized Link State Routing conventions, which ought to consider diverse parts of directing conventions, for example, rate of higher course foundation with less course breakage and the shortcoming of the conventions said ought to be extemporized for future expansions. OLSR can likewise be executed for multi-bounce steering in remote systems. The same work can be reached out for other proactive and receptive steering conventions with TCP and UDP traffics. One can likewise enhance OLSR convention and its execution by utilizing more parameters, for example, vitality parameters, lifetime of system, battery life time, security, QoS. This clarified work can likewise be explored and broke down for blurring and non blurring situations in remote specially appointed systems.
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A QOS-Traffic Based Distributed Routing Protocol Secure Link State Topology Using Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State Routing Protocol

A QOS-Traffic Based Distributed Routing Protocol Secure Link State Topology Using Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State Routing Protocol

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) can be described as an autonomous collection of mobile nodes (users) that communicate over relatively low capacity wireless links, without a centralized infrastructure. In these networks, nodal mobility and the wireless communication links may lead to dynamically changing and highly unpredictable topologies. All network functions such as routing, multi-hop packet delivery, and mobility management have to be performed by the member nodes themselves, either individually or collectively. So, network performance becomes highly dependent on collaboration of all member nodes. MANETs find applications in diverse fields ranging from low-power military wireless sensor networks to large-scale civilian applications, and emergency search/rescue operations.
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Performance Impacts Of Multipoint Relay Attack Against OLSR Protocol

Performance Impacts Of Multipoint Relay Attack Against OLSR Protocol

Abstract— A Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) is an assembly of nodes with extreme flexible topology for establishing wireless communications and forming a dynamic network. In order to enable conversation between any nodes in a network, a routing protocol is employed. Currently, there are three major routing protocols classes: reactive, proactive and hybrid protocols. Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) is one of the most used in MANET. It operates in table driven of proactive protocol. A major problem facing this protocol (OLSR) is security. Multipoint relay (MPR) attack is considered like the most efficient attack.This paper is organized into four large sections. In the first section, we talk about the main goal of "multipoint relays" (MPRs). Second Section is dedicated to the routing layer attack, especially MPR attack. The third section introduces simulation measurements and network layout. Finally, we discuss the simulation results in the last section, before concluding our paper.
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Comparative Analysis of Distance Vector Routing & Link State Protocols

Comparative Analysis of Distance Vector Routing & Link State Protocols

Sumitha J: Distance vector routing algorithm, link state routing algorithm, distributed routing algorithms are comes under the category of adoptive routing algorithms. The non adoptive routing algorithms are the algorithms in which it follows a static routing table for the data to allow transmission over the network. This algorithm does not adjust with the current traffic and the network topology. Shortest path routing, flooding algorithms are comes under the category of non adoptive routing algorithms. In this paper, an analysis is made over the routing algorithms such as between the adoptive routing algorithms and the non adoptive routing algorithms. The results are favoured to the adoptive routing algorithms in which the researchers can easily find the best routing path in a traffic over the network since it adjusts to network when compared with non adoptive routing algorithms. The researchers opt this because of the dynamic routing table. The results of the efficiency of the adoptive routing algorithms are better when compared to the non adoptive routing algorithms. The results concluded in this paper that the adoptive routing algorithms give best routing path when compared to the non adoptive routing algorithms in the networks.
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Comparative Study of ANT Based Routing Algorithms in MANETs

Comparative Study of ANT Based Routing Algorithms in MANETs

Available online: https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR/ P a g e | 1494 To implement MANET on a particular location a routing protocol is required so that the nodes can communicate with each other efficiently. Several routing protocols have been implemented that best suit the distributed system in an unreliable environment and the dynamic topology of the network. Some of the MANET routing protocols are: Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and Topology Broadcast based on Reverse Path Forwarding (TBRPF). Swarm intelligence, particularly studied in ants have inspired a number of methods and techniques among which the most studied and the most successful is the general purpose optimization technique known as ant colony optimization. Ant colony optimization (ACO) takes inspiration from the foraging behavior of some ant species. These ants deposit pheromone on the ground in order to mark some favorable path that should be followed by other members of the colony. Ant colony optimization exploits a similar mechanism for solving optimization problems. The simple ant algorithm could perform well in mobile multi-hop ad-hoc networks. The properties of ant based algorithm which make them suitable for MANET routing are:
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Effect of Quality Parameters in Efficient Routing Protocol – Grid FSR with Best QoS Constraints

Effect of Quality Parameters in Efficient Routing Protocol – Grid FSR with Best QoS Constraints

In [18], the authors proposed that, Fisheye State Routing (FSR) protocol is a proactive (table driven) ad hoc routing protocol and its mechanisms are based on the Link State Routing protocol used in wired networks. FSR is an implicit hierarchical routing protocol. It reduces the routing update overhead in large networks by using a fisheye technique [3]. Fish eye has the ability to see objects the better when they are nearer to its focal point that means each node maintains accurate information about near nodes and not so accurate about far-away nodes. The scope of fisheye is defined as the set of nodes that can be reached within a given number of hops. The number of levels and the radius of each scope will depend on the size of the network. Entries corresponding to nodes within the smaller scope are propagated to the neighbors with the highest frequency and the exchanges in smaller scopes are more frequent than in larger. That makes the topology information about near nodes more precise than the information about farther nodes. FSR minimized the consumed bandwidth as the link state update packets that are exchanged only among neighboring nodes and it manages to reduce the message size of the topology information due to removal of topology information concerned far-away nodes. Even if a node doesn’t have accurate information about far away nodes, the packets will be routed correctly because the route information becomes more and more accurate as the packet gets closer to the destination. This means that FSR scales well to large mobile ad hoc networks as the overhead is controlled and supports high rates of mobility. The FSR concept originates from Global State Routing (GSR) [19]. GSR can be viewed as a special case of FSR, in which there is only one fisheye scope level and the radius is infinite. As a result, the entire topology table is exchanged among neighbors. Clearly, this consumes a considerable amount of bandwidth when network size becomes large.
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A Review and Comparative Study on Various Routing Protocols for MANET

A Review and Comparative Study on Various Routing Protocols for MANET

amount of traffic overhead because packets are forwarded only to known routers. This is inappropriate for high dynamic networks because routing table are continuously updating with change in topology, this tends in increasing the packet overhead which lower the network performance. Proactive protocol uses the shortest path protocol [12]. Proactive protocols are not suitable for large networks as they need to maintainnode entries for each and every node in the routing table of every node [13]. Some of the proactive routing protocols are Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP), hierarchical source Routing (HSR), Global state Routing (GSR). (i)Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) :The Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) is an IP routing protocol optimized for mobile ad-hoc networks, which can also be used on other wireless ad-hoc networks. OLSR is a proactive link-state routing protocol, which uses Hello and Topology Control (TC) messages to discover and then disseminate link state information throughout the mobile adhoc network. Individual nodes use this topology information to compute next hop destinations for all nodes in the network using shortest hop forwarding paths.
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Vol 7, No 7 (2017)

Vol 7, No 7 (2017)

Simple Opportunistic Adaptive Routing Protocol (SOAR) [24] for Wireless Mesh Networks is an opportunistic proactive link state routing protocol. In SOAR every node maintains a routing table and each routing table would contain the destination, default path and forward list. Here the default path would contain the shortest route from source to terminal node and the forward list would contain the list of nodes that may forward the data. Because it is a proactive routing protocol hence, every node will measure and maintain the network topology. The link quality would be measured by ETX [8] metric. SOAR uses priority timer based forwarding to let only the best forwarding node to be operative. It has also implemented adaptive rate control to adjust the sending rate according the dynamic conditions of the networks. The SOAR protocol performs the recovery of lost packets using a local feedback and recovery scheme.
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ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT REACTIVE, PROACTIVE & HYBRID ROUTING PROTOCOLS: A REVIEW

ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT REACTIVE, PROACTIVE & HYBRID ROUTING PROTOCOLS: A REVIEW

OLSR is table driven routing protocol which is based on link state routing. Each node transfer the information, is used for maintaining routing table. There is concept of MPR which is used in OLSR. MPR stands for multipoint relay i.e. each node select a number of neighboring node to broadcast the information [2]. It has three mechanisms: a) HELLO message b) MPR flooding Control packet c) Shortest Path Selection [3].

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Network Density based Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols

Network Density based Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a network with structure less self organizing an autonomous system of mobile nodes which are connected by wireless links. In this work an attempt has been made to compare the performance of three MANET Routing Protocols, such that Pro-active Routing Protocol: OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol), Reactive Routing Protocol: AODV (Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector), Hybrid Routing Protocol: GRP (Geographic Routing Protocol) by using two different applications i.e. High Definition Video Conferencing and High Load FTP generating different types of data in the networks under different nodes densities (20, 40, 60 and 80) in the networks. All the networks are simulated by using a discrete event simulator OPNET 14.0 and results are gathered by using different performance evaluation metrics. After the intensive simulation, it has found that the hybrid protocols (GRP) outperforms both reactive (AODV) and proactive (OLSR) protocols.
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BUNDLE PROTOCOL ALONG WITH OLSR IN MANET

BUNDLE PROTOCOL ALONG WITH OLSR IN MANET

Abstract---- Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected via wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an end-to-end network architecture designed to provide communication in and/or through highly stressed networking environments. The key part in DTN is Bundling protocol. The bundling protocol allows hosts that normally cannot able to communicate each other due to network partitioning. Bundle Protocol follows the method of store, carry and forward. In case of store, carry and forward method, packets have been held for some period of time only. Probably there is a possibility of packet loss and delay occurs in those particular nodes, when time expires in Bundle Protocol. This paper aims to reduce such delay by using MANET routing protocol called OLSR (Optimised Link State Routing Protocol) for better delivery of packets. If the delay occurs in any node, Optimized Link State Protocol is enabled and the packets can be delivered quickly to the neighbours in an efficient manner. The parameters considered here are end to end Delay, throughput, route load and packet delivery ratio.
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ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING IN WSN

ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING IN WSN

Node scheduling results in good routing mechanism as it minimizes the routing time to create the new path. Here, we are using a link state routing protocol for 2 reasons. First it arrange the nodes in such a manner that node with less distance and maximum energy placed first in a list, next with less energy and at last the node with maximum load, less energy and maximum distance from source. Now the last nodes are removed from communication and are send to sink, so that recovery can be done. Second since the behavior of node is continuously in watchdog monitoring, affected or misbehaving nodes are directly send to sink for recovery purpose. Finally the scheduling list contains only good and enough energy seeking nodes which are active for current communication, makes the decision easy for watchdog to involve which nodes in communication.
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Impact of Pathway Overlap Mobility Models on
          MANET Routing Protocols Using OPNET Simulator

Impact of Pathway Overlap Mobility Models on MANET Routing Protocols Using OPNET Simulator

Abstract— MANET stands for Mobile Ad hoc Network. An ad hoc network is often referred to as an “infrastructure less” network, because the network does not need fixed routers. Every node must discover its local neighbours and through them it will communicate to nodes that are out of its transmission range. Every ad hoc routing protocol has their own advantages based on the performances in the network .These nodes are mobile communicating through wireless medium. =router. It’s characterized by multi-hop wireless connection and frequently changing networks. In this paper we evaluate the performance the performance of ad hoc routing protocols i.e TORA (Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm), OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) and GRP (Gathering Based Routing Protocol) under Pathway and Overlap Mobility model with varying node density by undertaking three parameters such as delay, network load, and throughput.
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Effective Prevention against DOS Attack in OLSR Protocol over MANET Environment

Effective Prevention against DOS Attack in OLSR Protocol over MANET Environment

In paper [9], they have addressed the problem of clustering in VANETs using Quality of Service Optimized Link State Routing (QoS-OLSR) protocol. There are several clustering algorithms wheremobility-based algorithms avoid the Quality of Service requirements that are important for MANET safety. In [9] paper the solution is a new QoS-based clustering algorithm that considers QoS requirements and high speed mobility constraints. The aim of this paper [9] is to form a stable cluster and maintain the stability during communications and link failures which are achieved by using Ant Colony Optimization for MPRs selection.The algorithm offers reduction of control overhead and also the stability of the network.
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Diversified optimization 
		techniques for routing protocols in mobile ad hoc wireless networks

Diversified optimization techniques for routing protocols in mobile ad hoc wireless networks

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless network without having a fixed infrastructure. The lack of infrastructure introduces various constraints on Ad-hoc networks. The selection of routing protocol is a big challenge in Ad-hoc network because of its dynamic behavior. This work mainly focusses to analyze the performance of hybrid (Zone Routing Protocol) routing protocol, which combines the best features of proactive (Optimized Link State Routing) and Reactive (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector) routing protocols using different performance metrics like Throughput, End-to- End Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Power Consumption and Packet loss ratio. In this work, Genetic Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization technique are proposed to improve the performance of MANETs.
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1. A Survey on Hybrid Routing Protocols to Deploy Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

1. A Survey on Hybrid Routing Protocols to Deploy Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

circumstances of applications. The ZRP protocol is studied in detailed by emphasizing the intra, inter and broadcast modules of ZRP. The extensions of ZRP protocol Scalable Unidirectional Routing with ZRP Extensions (SURZE) is discussed in case of uni-directions in the routing area. The Zone Based Hierarchical Link State Routing Protocol (ZHLS) is hierarchical routing protocol used for non-overlapping zones is briefed. The routing protocol using the mixture of good capabilities of proactive and reactive routing protocol called Sharp Hybrid Adaptive Routing based protocol (SHARP) is discussed, it works perfectly when the zone radius is zero but rise in zone radius also increases the overhead in this protocol. Hence when the zone size is smaller than SHARP protocol is preferred; finally the paper described Multilevel Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State Routing (M-ZHLS) which is used to reduce communications overhead and location search overhead. In future there is still lot much of work need to done in ZRP, different proactive and reactive routing protocols can be used to improve performance and routing overhead of ZRP.
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H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Video Streaming Analysis of AOD, OLSR and ZRP in MANET

H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Video Streaming Analysis of AOD, OLSR and ZRP in MANET

The performance comparison of Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) are carried out on H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video streaming under both Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) and Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function (EDCF) using NS2.34 [23,24,25,26,27] and Enhanced EvalVid framework [11,12]. Table 2 shows the simulation parameters. Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF) is selected for video streaming because it provides an acceptable resolution efficiency and suitability in bit-rate and frame rate by providing 56 kbps and 30 fps (frames per second) respectively.
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Unicaste Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

Unicaste Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

The Zone-based Hierarchical Link State routing (ZHLS) [40], is a hybrid routing protocol. In ZHLS, mobile nodes are assumed to know their physical locations with assistance from a locating system like GPS. The network is divided into non- overlapping zones based on geographical information. ZHLS [41] uses a hierarchical addressing scheme that contains zone ID and node ID. A node determines its zone ID according to its location and the pre-defined zone map is well known to all nodes in the network. It is assumed that a virtual link connects two zones if there exists at least one physical link between the zones. A two-level network topology structure is defined in ZHLS, the node level topology and the zone level topology. Respectively, there are two kinds of link state updates, the node level LSP (Link State Packet) and the zone level LSP. A node level LSP contains the node IDs of its neighbors in the same zone and the zone IDs of all other zones. A node periodically broadcast its node level LSP to all other nodes in the same zone. Therefore, through periodic node level LSP exchanges, all nodes in a zone keep identical node level link state information. In ZHLS, gateway nodes broadcast the zone LSP throughout the network whenever a virtual link is broken or created. Consequently, every node knows the current zone level topology of the network. Before sending packets, a source firstly checks its intra-zone routing table. If the destination is in the same zone as the source, the routing information is already there. Otherwise,
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