Furthermore, TraCI is adapted to fully support online access to the actual measurement data point through the selective generic parameter retrieval call as well as through subscriptions to the respective vehicle variable. This becomes necessary when using the data in a larger co-simulation environment. One premise for this preliminary work is to analyze the impact and potential not only on present day traffic scenarios, but also with respect to emerging trends. One of these is the growing connectivity of vehicles. In order to cover this area the Veins  framework is used, which uses TraCI to connect a network simulation performed by OMNeT++  to the trafficsimulation SUMO while using the vehicles as nodes. The adaptations to TraCI make it possible to access all aspects of the road surface condition itself as well as the sensor device.
The Wiedemann Model is used in the commercial and well-known trafficsimulation Vissim . The basic approach of the model is a psycho-physical spacing model. If a faster vehicle is approaching a slower leading vehicle, it will start to decelerate until it reaches its individual threshold. The threshold is a function of speed difference and spacing. While human drivers are not very good in perceiving small speed differences and in keeping their speed very accurate, the model uses two different threshold for acceleration and deceleration . A schematic figure of the thresholds and one example vehicle are depicted in Figure 1
Abstract— Computer simulations allow one to understand interactions of physical particles and make sense of astronomical observations. Today, Offices, administrations, financial trading, economic exchange, the control of infrastructure networks, and a large share of our communication would not be conceivable without the use of computers anymore. With the statistical analysis of data and data-driven efforts to reveal the prototype of transport traffic model, we focused the prospects of computer simulation and the features of agent-based modelling and multi-agent simulation (MAS). Agent based modelling has been widely accepted as a promising tool for urban planning purposes thanks to its capability to provide sophisticated insights into the social behaviours and the interdependencies that characterize transport systems. Trafficsimulation can be implemented using agent-based modelling (ABM), which enables dynamic objects such as vehicles to be modelled individually and have control over their behaviour. In doing so, we studied and presented various issues agent-based simulation, and provide a way to do them right from a scientific perspective. This paper focuses on the use of trafficsimulation in helping traffic engineers to reduce congestion. It aims to help in developing a unique trafficsimulation system that can be used to study traffic theory and access network infrastructure and control changes.
studies for Variable Speed Limit (VSL) algorithms have considered only one station to control the traffic. Jo proposed an optimization model of VSL for multiple stations, performed by VISSIM. The results show that the proposed algorithm improves safety on roads with minimum additional travel time (Jo & Kim, 2012). Besides, Tamas proposed MATLAB may be involved in the trafficsimulation to create an integrated environment with VISSIM. Thus, complex mathematical problems can be calculated online by MATLAB and used for VISSIM simulation (Tettamanti & Varga, 2012).
The purposes of this paper are to study and optimize traffic signal timing for each intersection on Sathorn Road: Sathorn-Surasak, Narinthorn, and Wittayu intersections. The results can assist the usage of signal control and further educate traffic police during critical periods along with reducing travel time for each vehicle on the road network , . Moreover, since Sathorn district can be considered as CBD in Bangkok, there are huge daily incoming flows every working-day morning. As a result, a reversible lane scenario has been proposed. However, in order to implement the reversible lane, traffic lights must be coordinated, especially at Narinthorn intersection, where there are two traffic lights within a short distance. This case is investigated in this work as well, which time offset of two traffic lights is the key result . Furthermore, to strengthen the validity of the analysis, real data from the field are used. In particular, the effect of motorcycles -, typical to Bangkok, is considered. Finally, outputs from Synchro in a form of optimal green times are applied into a microscopic trafficsimulation to further analyze the outcomes. While there exists several types of microscopic simulators , ‘SUMO’  is chosen. SUMO is an integral part of the Sathorn Model project, because it is an open source simulator which allows the development to be done in various ways. SUMO is also calibrated to Sathorn traffic based on data from the field. Subsequently, the results have shown some improvement for travel time.
B. Nautical TrafficSimulation with Multi-agent system The use of agent-based models is a logic step for realistic nautical traffic simulations, because ship traffic is a complex self-organizing system with autonomous entities. Firstly, the approach has been applied to other traffic modes such as road traffic  and pedestrians . Those models showed advantages on both the individual agent level and the traffic level. At agent level, the individual behavior is realistic and reflects the proper characteristics of the agent, e.g. the mathematical equations make the car agent behave as a car. At traffic level, the simulation results showed the statistical characteristics of the traffic. Secondly, the multi-agent system has the potential to reflect interactions (e.g. evasive behavior), emergent behaviors (e.g. collision avoidance in different situations), and uncertainties (a number of random variables to describe uncertain incidences like human behavior or human preferences), which are lacking in most of the existing ship trafficsimulation models. The concept design of the multi-agent simulation for ship traffic is described in [14, 15]. However, the details of models and how good these represent the reality are barely mentioned. Methods in agent based modeling for ship traffic
Abstract. VISSIM is a microscopic, time-interval and driving behavior-based simulation modeling tool for traffic modeling of urban traffic and public transportation operations, It can be used to analyze various traffic conditions, such as lane setting, traffic composition, traffic signals, bus stops, urban traffic and public transport operations, is an effective tool for evaluating traffic engineering design and urban planning solutions. This paper mainly studies the system architecture and simulation basic principle of VISSIM trafficsimulation environment software, and introduces its core model-vehicle follow-up model and vehicle lane change algorithm in detail, and designs a simulation example plot to verify the trafficsimulation model.
Although following a graphical representation of a trafficsimulation can be one of the best methods of determining the traffic flow through a specific traffic network, statistical output always gives additional information that can escape the human eye when viewing a real time execution of a simulation. This is the reason why most of the reviewed software packages included some kind of output files or data. However, we were only able to investigate the output of the SUMO package to its full extent while the demo versions of the other applications did not include the statistical output, which was said to only be included in the full version of the products. The following list includes the approaches we have found under the different packages:
In the present paper we develop a stochastic compositional model of the evolution of traffic flows on freeways. It is aimed to be applied to on-line prediction algorithms and control strategies (such as ramp metering and adaptive routing) for large freeway networks. The time scale of the traffic control actions requires aggregated models, which describe the dynamics of macroscopic variables such as density and average speed. The size of the network under study brings the necessity of compositionality, robustness. The model allows a lot of flexibility in choosing the time update step size and the cell sizes. These can vary with time depending on the availability of on-line measurements and with the location of the cells (e.g. on the location of sensors), as long as the generic condition is satisfied that “no vehicle can jump over a cell during one time step”.
Traffic flow on freeways is a complex process with many interacting components and ran- dom perturbations such as traffic jams, stop-and-go-waves, hysteresis phenomena. These perturbations propagate from upstream to downstream road sections (cells) forming for- ward waves, usually when traffic is light. During traffic jams drivers are slowing down when they observe traffic congestion in the cell ahead of them, causing upstream propagation of a traffic density perturbation. The development of models capable of capturing these differ- ent interactions between neighboring cells is a challenging task. In (Daganzo, 1994, 1995) piecewise affine static sending and receiving functions were introduced to describe the in- teraction between neighboring road cells, and these waves together. This model, called a cell transmission model (CTM) clearly describes the interaction between neighboring road cells. ∗ Corresponding author
The node identifiers used by OPNET are different from those in the main simulator. OPNET does not support dynam- ically creating a new node. Instead, there is a pre-defined pool of nodes that are enabled and disabled by move messages. In a simulation where vehicles are continuously created and removed, the same OPNET node identifier might be used mul- tiple times for vehicles that exist in different, non-overlapping periods of time. The translation between identifiers in OPNET and the main simulator is implemented on the client. The identifiers used in message (’source’, ’destination’, ’node’) correspond to those in OPNET. A future implementation might use a second translation on the server-side and use an intermediary format for identifiers, to simplify transitioning to other network simulators.
traffic on the road. The issue of measuring traffic volume in such condition is overcome by converting the traffic as passenger car unit. For measuring the traffic volume, the above mention unit is used. The passenger car unit value is derived by selecting the passenger car as standard vehicles. There are several highway manual in which guideline for highway capacity is given. But in these manual capacity estimation given are on the basis of fixed and regular PCU values of different vehicles type and these estimations are belongs to level road. However even on a level road the PCU values of vehicles changes (V.Thamizh Arasan,2010). Hence, estimation of passenger car unit values of various vehicle class in traffic stream at highway is immensely necessary for design, analysis, planning, operation, regulation and control of traffic on the highway. The road transport system in India is a lack of lane discipline and absence of operation and management experience. Lane discipline plays an important role in roadway capacity. To calculate the roadway capacity of any highway is the biggest censorious issue in highway planning and management. Developing countries like India, the traffic stream has diversity and a wide range of varies traffic. Also, the rapid increase in commercial vehicles and cars on Indian highway, a plenty of two-lane highways have been widening into a four-lane highway. Under National Highway Authority of India, to fulfill the wish of better and free-flow of traffic. Traffic forecasting is the approach of reckoning the no of vehicle or people which are likely to use various transportation amenity in future. For example, a forecast may predict the number of vehicles on highway or bridges, number of ridership on a metro line or railway, number of a passenger arriving and leaving at an airport or it may predict the expected future traffic level for the nation. The forecast is extremely needed in all the areas where the development has to be done. For planning, implementation and development of any transportation system, it is extremely important to know the future traffic flow as they also help in operation, management, and control of traffic. Structure design and geometric design of highway or bridge are principally based on forecast traffic volume and equivalent single axle load. In the present study, the main aim is to forecast the traffic by using previous traffic data and develop a relationship between speed-flow curve.
The simulation of traffic is currently of great interest to many transportation professionals due to congestion increase day by day. Due to rapid growth in urban area transportation increase day by day and the connection between two cities is carried out by multilane highway on which vehicle population rapidly increases. As the vehicle population increases, congestion also increases near the city area. To avoid this congestion we must require proper traffic and discipline traffic on highway. It can be done by developing a microscopic model by using different computer program such as simulation. Simulation is the mirroring of the operation of a real world process or system. To simulate something firstly we require to develop model and this model represent the behavior or function of the selected process. Simulation of traffic is the mathematical modeling of transport system and it is great help in the application of computer software to better plan, design, and operates transportation system. Today simulation is an important area of discipline in traffic engineering and transportation planning and it is started over forty years ago. There are number of transportation agencies, consulting firms and academic institutation use simulation to aid in their management of transportation network. For simulation there are many computer software which is efficient for traffic design and help in reduce congestion. India has second largest road network in world after USA(6.6 million km). it has road network of 4.32 km (2,914,132 mi). At present around 30 million vehicle in India and 2.5 million is added by every year. Traffic volume on road is increases at a rate of 12% per annum. According to the Ministery of Road Transport and Highway the total length of National Highway are 70458 km. The State Highway and National Highway together carry about the 10% of the total road of India road network but they carry 70% of the road traffic. As the substantial growth rate increase the traffic in India is likely to further increase in future, due to that there is a huge congestion on highway. Many developing countries like India are facing congestion problem on highway. it is the one of the greatest and huge problem face by many developing nations. Traffic in India as compare to the western countries are quite different. Indian highway share the slow moving tractor, animal or human powered vehicles, bicycle, cars, tractor and light commercial vehicles on the same carriageway. The traffic condition in India are heterogeneous, or we can say mix traffic. mix traffic causes the delay, excess journey time, accident occurrence etc.
In this paper we first, analyses the impact of weather on motorway traffic flow and drivers’ behaviour with traffic data from Swiss motorways and weather data from MeteoSuisse. Thereafter, we develop methodology to calibrate a microscopic simulation model with the aim to utilize the simulation model for simulating traffic under adverse weather conditions. Here, study is performed using AIMSUN, a microscopic traffic simulator, though the methodology developed is applicable for any trafficsimulation model.
Xiaochun Lu (2013)  studied the traffic flow at Beijing West railway station North area by survey and programmed trafficsimulation to find out the causes of traffic congestion and provide some optimization proposals with VISSIM. It was found that the traffic of the area considered for survey is upto 1800 vehicles/hour. The survey data of traffic flow mainly are cars. They are over 83%. Buses are about 15%~4%. In the area, only taxi and bus can provide public transportation service. It was found that when a taxi drops off passengers and a bus drives away from bus hub will cause traffic jam. In order to build simulation model, random distribution of bus departure time and taxi dwelling time must be given out. The traffic system were evaluated from two aspects: indicators that reflect fluency such as vehicle average queue length, maximum queue length, the total number of vehicles in queue; indicators that reflect efficiency such as average delay time, average stopping time, average travel time, times of stops. By simulation it was found that if the studied area could share some cars parking, and could cut down traffic flow to 1500 vehicles/hour, this area congestion will be improved. Meanwhile, adjusting bus interval departure time, extending to 10 minutes, could improve traffic condition as well.
The objective of the research work presented in the paper is to determine the effect of traffic composition on delay at signalised intersections. (Sheela and Isaac, 2014) recently developed a trafficsimulation model, TR AFFICSIM, which was used to study the vehicular interactions, at micro level over a wide range of traffic flow conditions at signalised intersections. Moreover, (Sheela and Isaac, 2014) developed trafficsimulation model and its application for estimating saturation flow at signalised intersections. Dynamic PCU values at signalised intersections in India for mixed traffic are determined by (Sheela and Isaac, 2015). LOS criteria for a mixed traffic condition were also suggested based on control delay and flow ratio as well as proportion of three wheelers.
New roundabouts are innovation and revolutionary in roundabout design, with the risk of incidents in these roundabouts far less than traditional common roundabouts. These types of roundabouts control the traffic flow at the entrance and exit of the roundabout, with the guidance of drivers to isolated lines before entering the roundabout and guidance to the spiral lines inside the roundabout as channelized. Another advantage of these roundabouts is the much more balanced division of traffic flows than traditional ones. In Iran, in view of the many problems of capacity, flow and safety of intersections and intersections, this type of roundabout can be very useful in certain conditions. In this research, how these roundabouts are compared and also the comparison of different input capacities based on the origin - destination demand matrix for new roundabouts and common roundabouts of two lanes with the help of Aimsun trafficsimulation software have been investigated. For this purpose, the values of traffic indicators of delay time, density, flow, stop time and travel time of computer simulations for new roundabouts and common roundabouts have been investigated and compared. According to the demand matrix of the origin-destination models loaded in the software and comparisons done, the optimal model for the highest capacity and the lowest delay time and travel time is presented. In this simulation, 8 to 16 percent increase in traffic flow and a decrease of 34 to 59 percent for travel time and delay time in the new roundabouts is shown in comparison with the common two-lane roundabouts.
Abstract: Congestion is a serious traffic problem in many countries in the world. In road network systems, it easily arises from intersections, weak points of traffic systems. To improve their capacities, much research has been done and applied, in which traffic light and traffic circle systems are usually used. They are truly effective ones in traffic systems especially in the developing countries, where there are not much money invested for infrastructure. Whether coordination between them is better or not that is studied in this article. In addition, although many mathematic models as well as simulation programs have been used to support improving traffic problems, they are mainly used for traffic systems in developed countries and not ensure to be applicable for these in developing countries with mixed traffic conditions, Vietnam case. Therefore, a specific trafficsimulation program is used. Suitable simulation models are constructed to describe as well as compare or evaluate considered alternatives including traffic light systems, traffic circle and coordination between them at the intersections. Besides, the logic of simulation models is outlined. Simulation results are, then, presented and evaluated. Finally, some conclusions are proposed.