After starting the engine the time taken for the consumption of 10cc of fuel is recorded at no load. Now load the gradually and take the time for the consumption of 10cc of fuel at constant rpm. Care should be taken that the engine is not overloaded. The engine was run initially usingdiesel for 10 minutes each for 25, 50, 75 and 100% load. The fuel consumption was measured by using stopwatch. During the initial and the final load applications, the AVL analyzer is used to detect the amount of effluent gases. The cooling water temperature at the outlet was maintained at 70 0 C. The engine was stabilized before
ABSTRACT: Now a day’s world is facing fuel problems due to increasing in automobiles, power plant and industries, increasing of these automobiles, power plant produce more emission like CO, HC and NOX. This situation leads to seek an alternative fuel for dieselengine .biodiesel is found as an alternative fuel for dieselengine .The ester of vegetable oil and animal fat are known as bio diesel .This paper investigates the prospect of making bio diesel from jatropha oil. Jatropha curcas is renewable and non edible plant. Jatropha is wildly grown in drought areas of the country on degraded soils having less fertility and moisture content. Jatropha bio diesel is an oxygenated fuel; it has more oxygen and can be used dieselengine without any modification. In present work studied the emission characteristics of jatropha biodiesel the blends of jatropha methyl ester and diesel in the proportion B10, B20, B60, B80 and B100 are prepared analysed and their performance and emissions characteristics compared with the performance and emission characteristics of diesel. And obtained the emissions like CO, HC, NOX and CO2.The results are compared with pure diesel.
Diesel engines have been use since the last 18 th century. The first dieselengine was developed to run on a peanut oil. Once the technology becomes widely known in the 1900’s, the abundance and low cost of fossil fuels, caused a paradigm shift away from vegetable based fuels . At the turn of current century, the same paradigm was beginning to shift back, due to rising fuel cost, the environmental impact and an abundance of waste feedstock available. Thus there is a demand to find alternative fuels for diesel engines. It is thus very essential to make all possible efforts to search for alternate fuel oils . To ever increasing number of auto mobiles has lead to increase in demand of fossil fuels (petroleum). The increasing cost of petroleum is another concern for developing countries as it will increase their import bill. Fossil fuels have limited life and the ever increasing cost of these fuels has led to the search of alternative renewable fuels for ensuring energy security and environmental protection .
connector rods. For biodiesel-powered motors, wear of large end rods, core bearings or pins has been found to be higher. The cylindrical surface texture was an appropriate following endurance test of both mineral diesel as well as biodiesel blend of Karanja . KeshiniBeetulet. al. (2014)This study examined lipid content and biodiesel potential for different microalgae produced in Mauritian marine water. The measurements were gravimetrically quantified and analyzed with spectroscopy 1H & 13C NMR. An attempt was made to synthesize biodiesel through an alkaline reaction as well as a biodiesel presence was found using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The infrared analysis brought in peaks of carbonyl or ether characteristics. 1738cm-1 or 1200cm-1 indicating biodiesel presence. In this study, preliminary data showed the capacity for the production of biodiesel in various microalgae found in Mauritian waters . Prem Kumar et. al. (2014)The biodiesel is regarded as a replacement for diesel, which has been investigated for the demand for transport fuel, captive power generation or agriculture industries. The performance of the dieselengine under loading conditions showed that B10 or diesel fuel has almost equal maximum power output at the full load level. Biodiesel with a light reduction in SO2 and HC emissions or increased NOX emission when biodiesel or its mixtures are used have been observed in combustion characteristics for less inflammable time or lower peak heat release rates. The study includes biodiesel as well as its blends with diesel combustion, performance or emission characteristics. Biopower, torque and Brake Specific Fuel Control (BSFC), thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust emissions for the output of the diesel engines and its blends with Petro
The emission of CO with respect to power is shown in fig.5. The percentage composition of CO decreases with increase in BP for all fuel. This trend can be mainly due to higher temperature at full load case easy and quick boiling of fuel which leads to decrease of CO in the exhaust gases. The CO emission of all blend of HB, PME and KME are considerably lower compared to the conventional diesel. The reduced CO emissions were maintained, probably, thanks to the oxygen inherently present in the biodiesel and its blend, which makes it easier to be burnt at higher temperature in the cylinder. The emission of CO of KME is higher compared to PME, this is explained by the higher oxygen content in the shorter fatty acid molecules, which leads to a more complete and cleaner combustion. Also there are methyl’s esters with longer chain length have higher boiling and melting points, so they are less likely to be completely vaporised and burnt, thereby increasing CO emissions
engine and it is very difficult to control them simultaneously Petroleum based fuels is a finite resource that is rapidly depleting. Consequently, petroleum reserves are not sufficient enough to last many years. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuel made from vegetable oil, friendly for environment and has no effect on health and can reduce the emission compared with diesel fuel. In this paper will be examined the use of diesel- hibiscus oil mixtures on (a single cylinder, direct ignition, four stroke, vertical, water cooled, naturally aspirated, variable compression ratio dieselengine). For those mixtures at B15 and B25 at compression ratios 13.5:1, 16.5:1 and 18:1 the brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and exhaust gas temperature. The gas emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO X ), are being
Analysis of single cylinder dieselengine operating With Pongamia oil and its blend reported that Transport vehicles greatly pollute the environment through emissions such as CO, CO2, NOx, unblunt or partially burnt HC and Particulate emissions. This paper presents the results of emission analyses carried out in an un modified dieselengine fuelled with Pongamia oil and its blends with diesel. Four blends were obtained by mixing diesel and Pongamia oil in the following proportions by volume: 95% diesel 5% Pongamia oil; 90% diesel 10%Pongamia oil; and 80% diesel 20% Pongamia oil. For comparison purposes, test runs were carried out for the pure diesel fuel. NOx, HC, CO, CO 2 emissions at different loads
Dhruv V. Patel , stated that according to statistical review of world energy published by British Petroleum the increase of oil reserves in world from 2012 to 2013 is 0.60% whereas oil consumption increases from 2012 to 2013 is 1.40%. Due to the increasing take care of fossil fuels and environmental issues, biodiesel are more used in recent years. In this experimental study has been carried out for Jatropha biodiesel blended with diesel used in single cylinder dieselengine. Consumption of diesel fuel is reduced when jatropha biodiesel is blended with dieselengine with high proportion. In this study, the input parameter are taken as blends, load and compression ratio for optimize the dieselengine parameter. The results of the taguchi experiment identifies that 0% blend ratio, compression ratio 18 and engine load 10kg are optimum parameter setting for lowest bsfc. Blending means to form the biodiesel by using the diesel and vegetable oil. We used 50% blend and pure biodiesel. A method called ‘Taguchi’ was used in the experiment for simultaneous optimization of engine such as compression ratio, blend composition and load condition. The taguchi method is the simplest method of optimization. Engine load is greatly affected and compression ratio are least affected on engineperformance.
Figure.1.shows the schematic line diagram of the experimental set up and its specification and operating ranges are given in Table .2.and Table.3. A Electrical dynamometer was used to apply the load on the engine. A water rheostat with an adjustable depth of immersion electrode was provided to dissipate the power generated. Tests were carried out at various loads starting from no load to full load condition at a constant rated speed of 1500 rpm.
6. Prakash et al. analysed and among them 20% Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) was found highly comparable and even superior in many properties with unblended petroleum diesel. The specific gravity, flash and fire points, cloud and pour points and kinematic viscosity were slightly higher than that of diesel, whereas the Diesel Index was much higher and the smoke point was slightly lower. The optimum parameters for using KOH as catalyst were 45mL methanol, 1.5 g catalyst, temperature 80 0C and reaction time of 60 min. Among the blends 20% KOME showed better performance characteristics than others.
Fig. 7 gives a relation of NO emission with the engine speed for B5 diesel, GTL and blends at a full engine load with variation of speed. Overall, NO emission decreases as the speed increases. Addition of GTL in blends contributes to greater NO emissionreduction. D80G20 and D50G50 showed respectively about 2% and 4% decreased NO emission. In general GTL showed 6~7% reduction in NO emission compared to B5 diesel. Higher CN induced shorter ignition delay, followed by lesser premixed charge results in the lower combustion temperature and pressure. It leads towards less NO formation in the cylinder on the basis of the temperature dependent thermal NO formation mechanism . Significant lower Aromatic contents of GTL fuel favors local adiabatic flame temperature which assists in NO reduction [5, 12].
The variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power is shown in fig 4.2 . Brake thermal efficiency appraises how efficiently an engine can transform the supplied fuel energy into useful work. Most of the supplied fuel energy will be loss as heat with the engine cooling water, lubricating oil and exhaust gas. It is also seen that the brake thermal efficiency decreases when the engine runs with biodiesel as fuel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel is 22.06 at a brake load of 6.73kW &the same for pure diesel is 25.79 %at a power Output of 6.73kW, and it goes on decreasing with increase in power output. It is also seen that the difference between brake thermal efficiency of biodiesel and diesel increases as brake power increases.
Fig.8 and 9 shows the comparison of exhaust gas temperature with brake power for B20% and B40% blends of neem biodiesel with ethanol 5% and EGR 5%, 10% and pure diesel. The exhaust gas temperature of B20% and B40% with ethanol 5% and without EGR at full load was 416.64 0c and 408.26 0C respectively at constant pressure 180bar and the exhaust temperature of B20% and B40% with ethanol 5% with EGR 5% at full load, it can be observed that 419.98 0C and 354.06 0C respectively. The exhaust temperature of B20% and B40% blends with ethanol 5% with EGR 10% at full load values can be found to be 435.87 0C and 383.36 0C respectively at constant pressure 180 bar, the pure diesel exhaust temperature found to be 417.68 0C. As a result of increased combustion duration, a higher exhaust gas temperature is recorded for B20% with ethanol 5% with EGR 10% blend exhaust gas temperature was higher in biodiesel compare with diesel at all load conditions. The possible reason for this temperature increased may be relatively higher availability of oxygen in biodiesel for combustion and because at full load the chemically correct ratio of air and fuel is used, because of chemically correct ratio of air and fuel, there is a generation of high heat inside the cylinder.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation is an effective method for NOx control. The exhaust gases mainly consist of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc. and the mixture has higher specific heat compared to atmospheric air. Re- circulated exhaust gas displaces fresh air entering the combustion chamber with carbon dioxide and water vapor present in engine exhaust. As a consequence of this air displacement, lower amount of oxygen in the intake mixture is available for combustion. Reduced oxygen available for combustion lowers the effective air–fuel ratio. This effective reduction in air–fuel ratio affects exhaust emissions substantially. In addition, mixing of exhaust gases with intake air increases specific heat of intake mixture, which results in the reduction of flame temperature. Thus combination of lower oxygen quantity in the intake air and reduced flame temperature reduces rate of NOx formation reactions  and . The EGR (%) is defined as the mass percent of the recirculated exhaust (MEGR) in the total intake mixture (Mi).
Md. Nurun Nabi, Investigated the combustion and exhaust gas emission characteristics when the engine was fuelled with blends of methyl esters of neem oil and diesel. The optimum blend of biodiesel and diesel fuel, based on the trade-off of particulate matter decrease and NOx increase, was a 20/80 biodiesel/diesel fuel blend. After an injection (BOI) delay of 3o NOx emissions reduced while maintaining emission reductions associated with fueling a dieselengine with a 20/80 biodiesel/diesel fuel blend. The retarded timing reduced the time for combustion to occur in the cylinder, reducing the peak pressures and temperatures that enhance the formation of NOx emissions. Canakcia et al.  used artificial neural network for analyzing and predicting the performance and exhaust emissions from diesel engines.
Now a day, diesel engines are widely used as power sources in transportation, power generation, agricultural sector, marine applications because of their lower fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) compared with gasoline engines. However, the limited reserve of fossil fuel and deteriorating environment have made scientists seek to alternative fuels for diesel while keeping the high efficiency of dieselengine. There is a need to search and find ways of using substitute fuels, which are preferably renewable and also produce low levels of gaseous and particulate pollutants in IC engines. Bio-fuels are gaining worldwide acceptance as a solution to environmental problems, energy security, reducing imports, rural employment and improving agricultural economy. Produce of biodiesel is very easy by using vegetable oil. Mostly Bio diesel is prepared from oils seeds like neem, polanga, rice bran and jatropha in India. The diesel fuel cannot be replaced totally by the vegetable oils because of the low cetane number, high viscosity, high ignition temperature and incomplete combustion leading to increased emissions and decreased performance.
soot were 18.9%, 38.8%, 71.4% and 26.3%, respectively with B20 (90 ppm) compare to neat B20. The MWCNT acts as catalyst to accelerate burning rate which result in decreased ignition delay. The CeO2 nanoparticles act as oxygen donating catalyst which oxidize CO into CO2 and absorb oxygen for reduction of NOx into nitrogen. The activation energy of CeO2 burn off carbon deposits within the combustion chamber and hence lower HC and soot emission. Selvan et al  studied performance and emission characteristics of VCR engine at optimum compression ration of 19:1 using diesterol (diesel-castor oil biodiesel – ethanol blend) - CeO 2 – CNT blends. They used CeO 2 and CNT of each 25, 50 and 100 ppm of concentrations added with
Fuel flexibility feature of HCCI engines could alleviate dependence on fossil fuels by enabling the use of alternative fuels. Due to large-scale production of primary alcohols such as methanol and ethanol, these could be used as partial substitutes for conventional fuels. Both methanol and ethanol exhibit good HCCI combustion characteristics . Methanol and ethanol have been used as a fuel in HCCI engines, either as 100% replacement [4–6,9,10,18,19] or in blended form [20,21]. Considering the individual advantages of bio fuels and HCCI engines, it will be worthwhile to investigate HCCI combustion fuelled with oxygenated bio fuels (such as ethanol, methanol and butanol). In this experimental investigation, HCCI combustion behaviour is investigated for ethanol, methanol, and butanol compared to baseline gasoline. Apart from potential advantages, there are some issues also. HCCI engines emit higher HC and CO emissions, and higher cycle-to-cycle variations are observed in indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) under some operating conditions. This behaviour of HCCI engines lead to difficulties in low-load/part-load conditions. Cycle-to- cycle variations in engine combustion processes has drawn significant attention of researchers because these variations adversely affect engineperformance and are therefore an undesirable combustion feature.
Calorific value is defined as the energy released as heat when compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions. Waste plastic oil, blend of waste plastic/diesel has been separately checked in a bomb calorimeter to determine the calorific values. If the calorific value almost similar to the diesel then it can be used as an alternative fuel.
standard properties of the fuel used for the study are given in Table 2. The detailed technical specifications of the engine are as shown in Table 3. It was a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four stroke, vertical, constant speed, air-cooled engine. It has a provision of loading electrically, coupled with single phase alternator through flexible coupling. Engine can be started using decompression lever provided with centrifugal speed governor. Lubrication system used in this engine was wet sump type. Inlet and exhaust valve operated with the help of an overhead camshaft driven from the crankshaft through two pairs of bevel gears. Fuel pump is driven from the end of camshaft. Air box with dimensions 630_405_175 (in mm), made of mild steel was used to measure mass flow rate of air. Orifice size of box was 35 mm for using with carburetor and inlet manifold simultaneously; it was fitted with two outlets with one end connected to carburetor and other to the main engine inlet. A control system for controlling of throttle valve of Likuni make (Japan), 125 cc bike CV (constant velocity) carburetor is as shown inFig.1. With full closing and full opening of throttle, it was possible to vary ethanol mixing from 3 to 48 percent. In conventional carburetors, throttle cable is connected directly to the throttle slide and when throttle is changed, the slide lifts and immediately increases the size of the carburetor opening letting in more air/fuel mix and increasing the speed of the engine. In CV carburetors, throttle cable actuates a butterfly valve, and as the throttle open, air pressure difference between the sealed chamber above the vacuum slide and inside carburetor venturi forces the slide (located in front of the butterfly valve) up and down. The downside of CV carburetors lack immediate