Dieselengine passenger vehicles are expected to increase in popularity. They represent approximately 57.8 % of the new cars sold.  Their popularity is due to their high fuel efficiency, which is 30 to 50% higher than that of a gasoline engine with comparable power output. Diesel engines are also used for other application such as generator sets, transportation vehicle, agriculture equipment & other industrial uses. Indian consumption pattern of diesel by transport and non-transport sector for retail sales from 2000 retail outlets in 150 districts across 16 states in each four rounds, spanning a period of 18 months has been presented in the following graph shown in figure 1:
validation and grid and time independency tests, it is found that increase in swirl ratio from 1.4 to 4.1 results in peak pressure rise of 8 bar and an advancement of injection timing from 6º bTDC to 20º bTDC results in increase of peak pressure by 15 %. Premnath et al, In this work, re- entrant combustion chamber with three different fuel injection pressures(200,220and240bars) has been used in the place of the conventional hemispherical combustion chamber for diesel and J20.From the experimental results, it is found that there-entrant chamber improves the brake thermal efficiency of diesel and J20 in all the tested conditions. It is also found that the 20% blend of Jatropha methyl ester showed 4% improvement in the brake thermal efficiency in the re-entrant chamber at the maximum injection pressure. Karuppa et al,  they have studied the effect of the swirl ratio in the combustion and the emission characteristics of an engine. Swirl ratios from 1.4 to 4.1 were used for the analysis.ECFM-3Z model is used to model the combustion and the emission in the dieselengine for various equivalence ratio and the swirl ratio. The equivalence ratio from 0.75 to 1.05 affects the reduction of the peak heat release rate. From swirl ratio of 1.4 to 4.1 the turbulent intensity at the TDC is increased by 12%. As the swirl ratio changes from 1.4 to 4.1 the peak pressure, peak temperature, peak heat release rate will increased by 7%, 8.6%, and 31% respectively. Prasad et al,  in this study the effect of the swirl for different piston bowl geometry on emission in a dieselengine was studied. Two different configurations were selected for the analysis purpose. It is concluded that the second configuration with a slightly re- entrant combustion chamber and sac-less injection was found to yield lower emission.
Abstract: Today’s world is facing major environmental issue called global warming, the emissions of diesel fuel is one of the major source for the global warming and also for air pollution. The use of biodiesel can reduce diesel fuel consumption and emission of dieselengine, because biodiesel has been considered as a potential alternative fuel for CI (Compression Ignition) engines. Out of many biodiesel derived from various resources, present study deals with usage of Used Temple Oil have been considered as fuel for analysis. The transesterfication process was adopted to condition the raw oil to suit its properties. Properties are evaluated according ASTM standard and properties are found to be computable with diesel. The present work Used Temple Oil biodiesel bends are used to the run thesingle cylinder four strokes dieselengine at different injection opening pressure. To optimize thethree opening pressure, Taguchi method adopted. For forming orthogonal array the experiments have been designed using DOE in Minitab 18 and Taguchi’s L9 array is employed. For identifying the contribution of various factors which significantly affects the response followed by regression analysis to validate the results at optimum set of selected control factors. This study deals with optimal values of BTE and NOx emission. From the results it reveals that NOx reduction is maximum at 200 bar injection pressure, B30 methyl ester blend at 50% load.
and Emissionreduction on Dieselengine using diesel blend is discussed. Biodiesel production nowadays become the modern and technological area for researchers due to constant increase in the prices of petroleum, diesel and environmental advantages. Biodiesel from Jatropha oil was produced by alkali catalyzed transesterification process used for the study on engine performance evaluation. Recently it is being considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels in internal combustion engine. Performance test and exhaust gas analysis was conducted with single cylinder water cooled dieselengine with Jatropha oil as fuel.
Cannabis sativa (commonly known as Hemp) seed oil as an alternative fuel for dieselengine. Biodiesel is produced from the cannabis sativa seed oil by single step base catalytic transesterification process. The study deals with the physicochemical properties of cannabis sativa biodiesel and has been compared with the base diesel. It has been observed that the properties of biodiesel are compatible with the base diesel under the ASTM D6751 limits respectively. Cannabis sativa biodiesel are blended in different proportion with base diesel such as B10, B20, B30, B50 and B100 and are tested in a Kirloskar TV1 single cylinder, four strokes DI engine under different loading conditions. Results illustrate that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for B10 and B20 were similar to base diesel. In case of engine emissions, cannabis sativa biodiesel blends gave an average reduction in hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) compared to base diesel.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation is an effective method for NOx control. The exhaust gases mainly consist of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc. and the mixture has higher specific heat compared to atmospheric air. Re- circulated exhaust gas displaces fresh air entering the combustion chamber with carbon dioxide and water vapor present in engine exhaust. As a consequence of this air displacement, lower amount of oxygen in the intake mixture is available for combustion. Reduced oxygen available for combustion lowers the effective air–fuel ratio. This effective reduction in air–fuel ratio affects exhaust emissions substantially. In addition, mixing of exhaust gases with intake air increases specific heat of intake mixture, which results in the reduction of flame temperature. Thus combination of lower oxygen quantity in the intake air and reduced flame temperature reduces rate of NOx formation reactions  and . The EGR (%) is defined as the mass percent of the recirculated exhaust (MEGR) in the total intake mixture (Mi).
Direct injection diesel engines are still fuel-efficient driving power plants for automotive applications because of their superior fuel economy relative to spark ignition and indirect injection engines of comparable capacity. The problem of environmental pollution in urban area is mainly caused by NOx and smoke emission which are emitted from the dieselengine . However, the increase in the price of diesel fuel, stringent emission regulations and foreseeable future depletion of petroleum reserves force us to research new technologies to meet human developments to reduce emission. Many investigations of improvement of combustion characteristics and exhaust gas emission of dieselengine, such as high pressure fuel injection, fuel modifications, alcohol fuels, Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR) and the aftertreatment technology have been conducted . Among various developments to reduce emission, the application of oxygenated fuels to diesel engines is an effective way to reduce pollution without any modification of the engine.
The smoke opacity in the exhaust when Biodiesel is used was less than that of Diesel, this is due to the presence of Oxygen in the Bio diesel which aids in more efficient combustion. The reduction in smoke when using Bio Diesel is believed to result from the oxygenated fuel structure of Bio Diesel and low concentration of aromatics in biodiesel  .It is also important to note that smoke concentrations only reveal information about Visible smoke in the exhaust this data should not be extrapolated to make any conclusions about changes in particulate matter emissions (which are the regulated emissions of concern). When Nitrogen is enriched, the Percentage of oxygen available for combustion reduces giving raise to opacity in Smoke.
The results o f investigations o f the influence o f biodiesel fu e l and its blends with D2 fu e l on the operation o f diesel engines are often contradictory. Although there is a common b elief that the use o f biodiesel reduces soot and increases NOx emissions, the findings fo r CO and H C emissions tend to vary fro m case to case. Furthermore, there are even some reports o f NOx reduction when using biodiesel. These inconsistent conclusions are caused by the non-uniformity o f engine testing. These tests were perform ed on different engines using different combustion-chamber geometries, different fuel-injection systems, etc. In order to identify and analyze some o f the possible reasons we tested two different diesel engines. The operation and emission characteristics o f both engines with biodiesel and D2 fu e l were measured and compared, and in-cylinder pressure traces were acquired and used fo r the combustion analyses. The results obtained fo r both engines showed that findings regarding the influence o f biodiesel fu e l on the combustion process and emission form ation could not be generalised, and had to be interpreted as being specific to the particular engine.
fuels in general [8,11,14]. In the present study, neat rapeseed oil was considered as a potential alternative fuel for an unmodified dieselengine because it has high oil content (around 40%) for biodiesel production. Main aim of this study is to investigate the engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a dieselengine fuelled with Java plum seed and custard apple seed biodiesels and its diesel blends compared to those of standard diesel. It is also hoped that the new data presented here will assist in developing new prognostic methods or procedures for this actual problem.
Variable-stroke engines are gaining attention by researchers and automobile manufactures for their fuel-economy advantage. Many mechanisms are used for achieving the variable compression ratio. Dual piston mechanism , multi link mechanism , varying the stroke length of the connecting rod , Eccentric movement of crankshaft . The most widely used method of varying the compression ratio is the Tilting Cylinder arrangement where the cylinder head is tilted to an angle thereby increasing the clearance volume. Different angle of tilt correspond to different compression ratios. It was found that performance parameters viz. BSFC, BTHE are better at higher compression ratios . Performance and emissionstudy done on the Dieselengine by varying the engine Design parameters such as the compression ratio and injection timing using Methyl esters of Jatopha , Mahua Oil , Waste cooking oil  shows that, as the compression ratio is increases the brake thermal efficiency and the brake power rises. Brake specific Fuel consumption is reduced at higher compression ratios. Emissionstudy on the dieselengine by varying the compression ratio shows that NOx content increases sharply with increase in the compression ratio. When the compression ratio was decreased the CO and HC content in the emission was found to increase .
Abstract: Growing concern regarding energy resources and the environment has been increased interest in the study of alternative energy sources.. To meet increasing energy requirements, there have been growing interests in alternative fuels like biodiesel to provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. Biodiesels are offer a very promising alternative to diesel oil since they are renewable and have been similar properties. One of the economical sources for biodiesel production which doubles in the reduction of liquid waste and the subsequent burden of sewage treatment is waste cooking oil (WCO). However, the products formed during frying process have affected the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. These experiments about the performance analysis of C.I. engine using diesel and waste cooking oil blend.
time. It is a direct conversion to biodiesel with no intermediate compounds. This work provides an overview concerning biodiesel production. Likewise, this work focuses on the commercial production of biodiesel. The Valdescorriel Biodiesel plant, located in Zamora (Spain), is taken like model of reference to study the profitability and economics of a biodiesel plant. The energy used for the biodiesel production is 30% less than the obtained energy from the produced biodiesel. Replacing petro diesel by the biodiesel produced in the plant, a significant CO2 reduction can be reached (about 48%). It means that the CO2 emission can be reduced by 55 000 tons CO2 per year. The production of biodiesel from sunflower oil and ethanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst was performed in the laboratory and the results are discussed. The results are analyzed using the statistic method of Total Quality. The effect of the ethanol/oil ratio and the amount of used catalyst on the yield of biodiesel as well as on the properties of the produced biodiesel is studied. In the experimental part the density, viscosity and refractive index of the produced biodiesel are measured. The ethanol/oil ratio influences the biodiesel production. The yield of biodiesel increases with the ethanol/oil ratio. Regarding the influence of the amount of catalyst on biodiesel production in the studied conditions, an increase of the biodiesel yield with the amount of catalyst can be appreciated. The study of the evolution of the transesterification during time shows that a reaction time of one hour is sufficient enough in order to reach the highest yield of biodiesel.
There are many of harmful emissions influencing agents. Thermal, shaped and vortex properties of combustion chamber are one of the main one. Also the method and quality of injection process falls into the same category. Despite the usage of modern concepts of internal combustion engines, possibility of achieving of the appropriate emission standards without additional treatment of exhaust gasses is possible. Oxidation catalytic converter and selective catalytic reduction or exhaust gas recirculation with particles filter are one of the main methods for exhaust gases after treatment (Šmerda and Čupera, 2011). SCR technology is widely used with trucks, buses and coaches, agricultural and construction machinery, but nowadays car manufactures using this concept in passenger cars concept. These catalysts are used for reduction of NOx. Former reduction of nitrogen oxide was difficult and problematic. The most significant pollutants of diesel engines are NOx (Macek and Suk, 1996). Chemical reactions in SCR catalyst are initiated with the aid of reducing agent of ammonia NH 3 . Nitrogen
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat- based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters. Biodiesel can be used alone, or blended with petrodiesel in any proportions. Biodiesel blends can also be used as heating oil. Soya biodiesel is an alternativefuel produced from soybean oil. Soya biodiesel can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. Soya biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the soybean oil. The process gives two products: methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (used to make soap). Soya methyl esters, the predominant type of biodiesel fuel, have higher NOx emissions, poorer cold flow, and shorter shelf life when compared to petroleum diesel. These shortcomings are partly due to the fatty acid profile of the soybean oil feedstock itself. The fatty acid profile and the alcohol moieties determine the characteristics of the fuel such as cetane number, cold flow, oxidative stability, lubricity, and viscosity (11). This article examines the effects on fuel properties such as Cetane Number, NOx emissions, and CO &HC emissions.
The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the performance and emission characteristic of a VCR dieselengine fuelled with Hibiscus-Diesel blend. Worldwide increase of demand for diesel fuel and environmental emission control has led to considerable research for better fuel formulations and thus reduction in smoke and particle levels. However, it is difficult to achieve the required emission standards with engine improvements alone. Blending the diesel with different vegetable oils has proven to be an alternative method to achieve the low emission and better performance diesel combustion. This has been the focal point of most researches in this field with in last two decades.
Part III contains regulations for smoke emission control of motor vehicle. This part shall apply to every motor vehicle irrespective of whether it is in use or stationary, or in any bus terminus, taxi stand or private premises or on any private road. For the maximum concentration of smoke shall not exceed Ringelmann No. 2 with the procedure as specified in the Third Schedule and Fourth Schedule (refer appendix). For the maximum density of smoke permitted when tested under the free acceleration test with a smoke meter shall not exceed 50 HSU or other equivalent smoke units or in percentages (%) or other units. The free acceleration test shall be conducted in accordance with the methods specified in the Fifth Schedule (refer appendix).
environmental degradation. The projections up to 2020 demonstrate the increased demand of fossil fuels up to three times that will boost the pollution levels in terms of airborne pathogens (i.e. infections, particles and chemicals), greenhouse effect in context of local, territorial and global spectrum . In these consequences, a strong worldwide drive towards alternative liquid fuels for transportation, mainly driven by emissions reduction, energy security concerns, volatility in the fuel price and the search for renewable fuels to compliment the dwindling world fuel supplies. Gas to Liquid fuels synthesized from natural gas by means of Fisher -Tropsch process can play a promising role as a clean alternative fuel . GTL fuel has several distinguished beneficial properties like higher Cetane number, absence of PAH content, virtually zero sulphur, negligible amounts of aromatics and hetero atomic species like sulphur and nitrogen [2-5]. Higher cetane number leads towards improved combustion that yields lower CO, HC and PM emission [6-8]. NO x emissions can also be reduced by increasing the EGR ratio without significant smoke penalty up
An oxidation catalyst is a flow through exhaust device that contains a honeycomb structure covered with a layer of chemical catalyst. This layer contains small amounts of precious metal-usually platinum or palladium-that interact with and oxidize pollutants in the exhaust stream (CO and unburned HCs), thereby reducing poisonous emissions. Sometimes called an OxyCat when used on a dieselengine, it works together with the DPF and EGR valve to remove the bulk of unburned hydrocarbons, soot and NOx from diesel exhaust.
In their study, the use of dimethyl ether and diethyl ether as alternative fuels in a dieselengine are investigated by means of a thermodynamic dieselengine cycle model. Engine performance decreases and specific fuel consumption increases for dimethyl ether and diethyl ether in case of the same fuel injection rate due to lower heating values of these alternative fuels so the decrements in brake power at 4200 rpm are about 32.1% and 19.4% and also the increments in brake specific fuel consumption at 2200 rpm are about 47.1% and 24.7% for dimethyl ether and diethyl ether, respectively. However, brake thermal efficiency of dimethyl ether and diethyl ether is better than or close to diesel due to their favorable combustion characteristic. Improvements in engine performance, brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption are gained by both dimethyl ether and diethyl ether for the same equivalence ratio conditions while amount of fuel injection of the alternative fuels increases about 64% for dimethyl ether and 32% diethyl ether due to their lower Stoichiometric air fuel ratio.