The ZigBee protocol has three main features: low power consumption, low cost and low data rate (250Kbps), unlike Wi-Fi which can achieve data transfer rates of 11Mbps to 55Mbps, or Bluetooth that can achieve the rate up to 55Mbps . Despite presenting a low data transmission rate, devices ZigBee are more sensitive to a lesser extent, simple protocol, with transfer data securely, especially when compared to other wirelessnetwork standards such as Wi-Fi protocols and Bluetooth. Furthermore, it can be said that the ZigBee protocol has a low-latency communication, this is, quick response, as will be demonstrated in test session this paper, and allows grouping a large number of nodes on a single network (65,000 nodes) . Its application is very common for industrial control and monitoring, home automation, embedded sensing and automation of power systems . 4 ZIGBEE'S TECHNOLOGY
Li Liyz Mehmet et al. (2007), In this, The propelled communication models were proposed to totally characterize the WUSNs and establish the frameworks for effective communication for this situation. Specifically, the USN channel is modeled considering the propagation of EM waves in soil, and other influences, for example, composition of soil, multipath, VWC, and also depth of burial. In addition, based on this model, the ensuing bit error rate will be investigated for soil parameter and the diverse network. The simulation results and theoretical analysis demonstrate the possibility of WUSN environment and also highlight a few imperative angles in this field.
Wireless Fidelity Based SensorNetwork, (WBSN) is a device which designed based on smart wirelesssensornetwork for monitoring an agricultural environment. The design is mainly focuses on the uses of Wi-Fi in android phone as a medium and the live temperature status at the agriculture site is displayed on the screen of android phone. This automation device implements a systematic way to improve the manual system in monitoring the temperature in agriculture field. In plantation, the live temperature is very important as it is one of variables that must be constantly monitored to ensure optimal conditions. In manual system, a lot of problems can be faced not only for a farmer but also affected the rate of production yields. A Wi-Fi is a medium for the worker to gather the data from one point to trace down the local climate parameters in different area.
BP neural network is the error back propagation neural network, which consists of an input layer, one or more hidden layers and one output layer, each composed of a certain number of neurons. CMOS image sensor is not only the complete elimination of the fixed pattern noise generated by a circuit, and reduces the random noise, improves the CMOS image sensor sensitivity. ZigBee protocol defined in the IEEE 802.15.4 specification uses the physical layer (PHY) and media access layer dielectric (MAC), and defined on the basis of the network layer (NWK) and application layer (APL) architecture. The paper presents a novel model of ZigBee in wirelesssensornetwork based on CMOS image sensor and BP neural network. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the improved model is better than the traditional model.
Modeling procedure of network layer process model based on OPNET includes three stages: process decomposition, event enumeration, and state response diagram. Firstly, the ZigBeenetwork layer process model is described in a single process. Secondly, all the logical events that may call the process are enumerated, and the responses of process model to various events are determined. A state transition of ZigBeenetwork layer is represented by the event response table, including probable state actions of each state, transition conditions, and end conditions. Finally, a state transition diagram and its status codes are developed to achieve the process model.
problem of using ARM processor S3C2440A to realize protocol conversion between networks . Khan et al. (2016) discussed the idea and scheme of network node design and development. Generally, the combination of processor and radio frequency pro- cessing chip or high integration chip system architecture uses single chip or low-end processor. It also uses the embedded software architecture to implement the transmis- sion network function . Mosterman et al. (2016) studied the two means of the design of embedded software. One is the design idea based on the TinyOS operating system, and another is the solution scheme based on the ZigBee protocol stack. TinyOS can quickly develop component-based architecture, which reduces the code volume oper- ating of the sensing network. The system and library functions are written and designed based on structured concepts and execution models. The solution to the ZigBee stack is to transplant ZigBee protocol stack on the microprocessor or on chip system, and then use the application programming interface function to complete the development of application layer . Khan et al. (2016) studied wireless remote monitoring based on WSN. They used the simple structure, small size, and low cost features of WSN composed of ZigBee technology to realize close range wireless connection, which can ensure the real-time and reliability of data transmission . Nellore et al. (2016) dis- cussed the ZigBee technology and gave the composition of the wireless data acquisition system based on ZigBee. Finally, they completed the node acquisition by using CC2430 chip, designed the hardware and software of the main control unit, and realized data acquisition and wireless transmission . Khan et al. (2016) analyzed the new and open wireless interconnection technology - ZigBee technology, combined sensor technol- ogy, ZigBee technology and routing protocol, and constructed a WSN . Shaikh et al. (2016) studied the ARM9 industrial control motherboard as the core unit, used the om- nidirectional vibration sensor, and designed a set of vibration data acquisition system based on WSN by combining with the ZigBeewirelessnetwork technology .
Taking Fukushima accident as an example, in March 2012, the level of radiation is estimated to up to 73 Sv/h inside the containment of No.2 reactor , and Feb. 2017, the level has shot up to 530 Sv/h . Such high level of radiation can, no doubt, cause severe damage to wireless transceivers and networks if no precautions are taken. Before any protection measures can be taken, it is necessary to investigate how different wireless devices and network components react to radiation under similar radiation conditions. Unfortunately, there are only limited resources available on radiation responses of industrial wireless devices and networks in the literature. To fill this gap, the characteristics of commonly used industrial wireless devices and networks are studied. The results of this study provides a scientific basis in the selection of suitable wireless technologies and network devices in such applications. Based on those studies and analysis, six industrial wireless nodes built with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, CC2530 (2.4 GHz ZigBee standard), CC2520 (2.4 GHz WirelessHART standard), CC2530 (2.4 GHz ISA100.11a standard), are chosen to undergo irradiation tests in a gamma radiation environment. Since these are destructive tests, a group of diversified wireless devices are therefore built using different industrial wireless networks for the radiation tests. A total dose test is performed to measure the behaviors of the developed wireless devices and networks by directly exposing them to 60Co gamma irradiator at The Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (OSU-NRL) under a high dose rate (20 K Rad/h). The results of this test will provide guidelines to design wireless monitoring instruments for using in high level radiation environments. They serve as important references to assist other researchers and engineers to design and manufacture radiation-hardened (rad-hardened) monitoring system by using COTS components.
This chapter will state briefly all the problems statement, objectives, and the scope for this project. The explanations are about the literature review of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), WSN (WirelessSensorNetwork) and Zigbee 802.15.4 standard. This project is consisting of two parameters which are to measure water level and temperature.
The researcher first chose the proper sensor for the above application to convert the physiological signals into electrical signal which is in the form of analog signal. This analog signal was converted into digital signal by designing a proper circuit. This digital signal was fed into the PIC controller. The output of this PIC controller is fed into the serial communication circuit. The output of this serial communication circuit is fed into the zigbee device and output of this zigbee device is transmitted via transmitting antenna. In the receiver side the said transmitted signal is received through the receiving antenna and fed into the zigbee unit. The output of this zigbee unit is fed into the RS-232 serial port communication interface and output of this RS-232 is fed into personal computer (PC) sends global system for mobile communication (GSM) short message to the receiver. The receiver can use the PC or personal digital assistant (PDA)
The source of the maize is at the villages in the districts. Small scale farmers bring maize that they have harvested from their fields to a central place in the village. The maize is initially brought in their own maize bags, they then purchase the FRA bags at a small fee and transfer the grain to the FRA bags. They then tag each grain filled bag with an RFID tag and then seal the bag. The tagged grain bags are then passed through an RFID antenna/reader placed at the central loading place in the village. Tag data from the RFID chips in the grain bags is read by the RFID readers and transmitted through the ZigBee WSN to the middleware which is housed in servers in the cloud. At the middleware, the tags in each grain bag are programmed with information relating to that bag. Stock is then transported to the central district warehouse depots for temporary storage.
The neural network is learning or training. The so-called training, is in the sample set (or called the training set) input to the process of the neural network, according to certain rules, connection weights adjustment between neurons, so that the network can store the relationship between sample set in the connection weight matrix way, which makes the network to accept input, to give the appropriate output . Learning is one of the most important functions of neural network. Neural network is through continuous simulation and learning of the neural network, the simulation results and performance error change curve correction network parameters finally get the weights of the network, an optimal threshold value and other parameters. Neural network evaluation of changing network parameters is the basis of learning rules. The learning rule of neural network is generally divided into supervised learning, unsupervised learning two rules.
Abstract—For dealing with the limitations and deficiencies of present wire- less sensornetwork nodes, including poor flexibility, low degree of variability, low generality, Arduino development advantages are combined with ZigBeewireless communication technologies characteristics. The versatility and flexi- bility of wirelesssensornetwork nodes and the cost and energy consumption of nodes are studied. First of all, ZigBee communication protocol and networking technology are studied, and based on this, communication protocols that the subjects need are designed. Secondly, the hardware system of ZigBeewirelesssensornetwork node based on Arduino technology is discussed and designed. In addition, suitable Arduino development panel is selected in accordance with requirements of ZigBeewirelesssensornetwork node. With the development panel as the design prototype, the circuit of functional module is designed. Thirdly, based on the wirelesssensornetwork node communication protocol and hardware design, the software system of wirelesssensornetwork node is designed and realized. The results showed that, through designing reasonable software working flow and compiling efficient information acquisition and wireless communication program, the intelligence orientation of node infor- mation acquisition and information transmission is achieved. In a word, it can be concluded that, combined with Arduino, a better function can be achieved.
The project mainly aims in design and implementation of automatic irrigation control system using ZigBee  wirelessnetwork and the internet communication system based on Wi-Fi technology . For such an environment, such as radiation, pollution, dangerous, distributed environment where the staff is not easy to reach, it is difficult to complete data collection and real-time monitoring through the traditional manual method. The automated irrigation system hereby reported, consisted of two components wirelesssensor units (WSUs) and a wireless information unit (WIU), linked by radio transceivers that allowed the transfer of soil moisture and temperature data, implementing a WSN that uses ZigBee technology. The WIU has also a Wi-Fi module to transmit the data to a web server via the public mobile network. The information can be remotely monitored online through a graphical application through Internet access devices.
Abstract: The paper addresses a cost-efficient, flexible solution for underground mine workers’ safety. A module of sensors and webcam are used for underground environment monitoring and analysing measurement data through digital wireless communication technique is proposed with high accuracy, smooth control and reliability. A microcontroller is used here for gathering data and making decision, based on which the mine worker is informed through alarm as well as voice system. ZigBee, based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard is used for this short distance transmission between the hardware fitted with the mine worker and the ground control centre. Also the wireless camera is used for visual distant monitoring purpose.
Because the engenderment of potency is less than the injuctive authorization power of consumer side. In many countries the instrumentation in demand is growing at a more expeditious rate than transmission capacity and additionally the cost of providing power is additionally incrementing due to the higher coal prices and deficiency of fuel. Withal the reason of not getting the full power to consumers side is that the growing population of countries. To surmount the quandary of potency distribution this paper provides an overview of wirelesssensornetwork by managing the equal power distribution by utilizing zigbeenetworksensor. A keenly intellective environment is a physical world that is interconnected through a perpetual network abundantly and invisibly with sensors, actuators and computational units, embedded seamlessly in the everyday objects of our lives. A perspicacious home is a residence in which computing and information technology apply to expect and respond to the occupants' needs and can be acclimated to enhance the everyday life at home. Potential applications for astute homes can be found in these categories: welfare, regalement, environment, safety, communication, and appliances. Automation is, where more things are being consummated every day automatically, customarily the fundamental tasks of turning on or off certain contrivances and beyond, either remotely or in
Security of life and properties is one of the basic provisions of a nations constitution which must be well protected at all times. For residential and industrial setups, there are so many security infractions that needed better solutions taken the advantages of the new developments in Communication technology. This work intends to provide a security system to monitor a residential or industrial setup, for infractions and give the necessary information to arrest its effect even without the physical presence of the property owner. The design consists of wirelesssensornetwork for surveillance in a typical residential or industrial outfit using ZigBeewireless communication protocol, while the ATTiny102 microcontroller was used as the controller for the sensor and security module. The information from the ZigBeewireless device was transmitted through a radio frequency signal at 2460 MHz to the central processing unit with ATmega328p
The measurement nodes were running a script written in Ruby programming language  to enable fast prototyping and experimenting. The script controls the wispy_logger and the kismet_server processes, while the later pre-processes the outputs generated from the wispy_logger that includes downscaling, time-stamping and final logging of the data. It also takes care of channel hopping when Kismet fails to channel hop using the Cisco Aironet network interface controllers. The kismet_server instance was terminated after three minutes to extract logfiles containing the number of wireless networks detected as well as the channels they were transmitting on. Figure 1 shows the code snippet of the noise- logger ruby script, and wispy-scaler.rb is shown in figure 2.
In recent years, the ISM license-free radio frequencies have been used for communication technologies such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ZigBee. The more commonly used license-free RF bands are 900MHz, 1.8GHz, and 5.8GHz. The two methods for radio frequency modulation in the unlicensed 2.4GHz ISM band are frequency- hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) and direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS). FHSS is a spread-spectrum method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. DSSS is a modulation technique in which the transmitted signal takes up more bandwidth than the information signal that is being modulated. The 900MHz radio frequency band is for unlicensed use only in North America, Australia and Israel, while the 2.4 GHz radio frequency band can be used worldwide (including North America, Australia and Israel).
From the spectrum of Figure 10 some observations can be made. First the spectrum of the router set to Wi-Fi channel 1 looks different compared to its spectrum during previous measurements show in Figure 7 and 8 and inside this channel some Bluetooth peaks can be detected, however the router set to Wi-Fi channel 5 shows a much more flat spectrum compared to its spectrum in Figure 8 and no Bluetooth peaks can be detected inside. Furthermore there is only one observable peak inside the frequency band of Wi-Fi channel 3 which is less compared to previous measurements. In this measurement most of the high peaks are located outside the frequency band used by the routers with a gap from 2466 MHz to 2478 MHz for a total of 12 MHz. Whereas the big gaps inside the frequency range of the Wi-Fi routers are the first 11 MHz up to 2412 MHz and a gap of 19 MHz between 2420 MHz and 2439 MHz. If the 10 dB bandwidth of the Wi-Fi routers is examined, which is located between 2405 MHz and 2438 MHz, resulting in a 33 MHz bandwidth, it can be seen that 3 peaks are present. If the remaining bandwidth inside the spectrum of Figure 10, a total of 47 MHz bandwidth, is examined 10 peaks can be detected. So the remaining bandwidth is about 1.4 times the 10 dB Wi-Fi bandwidth but there are more than 3 times as many detectable peaks. So the AFH still seems to be avoiding channels used by Wi-Fi most of the time, although it could be that due to a disturbance in the Wi-Fi signal of channel 1 this particular channel wasn’t avoided.
The simulation is carried out using ns-2 the version is ns-2.35. The operating system is used Ubuntu 12.04 LTS.  To illustrate the performance we have configured Wi-Fi networks for simulation. In our simulation Wi-Fi networks have three access points (AP) and seven mobile nodes (MN). The AP1, AP2, AP3 are the three access points and MN1, MN2, MN3, MN4, MN5, MN6, MN7 are the seven mobile nodes. The MN1, MN2, MN3 are connected to AP1, the MN4, MN5, MN6 are connected to AP2 and MN7 connected to AP3.