In this study, a design and analysis of simple line fed microstrip patch antenna for global WLAN applications has been achieved. The proposed antenna was designed to operate at 5.6GHz for Standards IEEE 802.11b WLAN applications. The Substrates are FR4 and Rogger RT 5880 are used to achieve -21dB and -28db of reflection co efficient .using small dielectric constant substrate getting better Frequency. The dimensions of the feed line affect the reflection co efficient.
A microstrip antenna basically consists of a two parallel conducting layers separated by a single thin di electric substrate. The lower conducting substance acts as ground plane and the upper conductor acts as radiator. Larger ground plane gives better performance but off course makes antenna big size. Microstrip antenna has different shapes like rectangle, circular, square, triangle, for better performance we use rectangle microstrip patch antenna. The resonant frequency is determined by resonance frequency. The difference between electrical and physical size is mainly depends on PCB thickness and dielectric constant. For the performance evaluation different patch that we used here is quartz glass, Taconic, RD 4003, quartz crystal and RT duroid 5880. The size of the substrate determines the performance of the microstrip patch antenna.
A microstrip antenna is wide beam width, narrowband antenna which is fabricated by etching an antenna element in a metal to an insulating dielectric substrate with metal layer bonded to the opposite side of substrate which forms a ground plane. The rectangular Microstrip patch antenna is the widely used for all the types of Microstrip antennas that are present. Its fabrication is very easy, robust design and of course very easy to handle. In Microstrip patch antenna when source signal is applied at patch, the EM waves will be radiated. This patch is a strip conductor of length L and width W on a dielectric substrate with constant εr, height of the patch being h and thickness t is supported by a ground plane.
Some noteworthy observations are apparent from Figure 4.5. First, the bandwidth of the patch antenna is very small. Rectangular patch antennas are notoriously narrowband; the bandwidth of rectangular microstrip antennas are typically 3%. Secondly, the microstrip antenna was designed to operate at 100 GHz, but it is resonant at approximately 96 GHz this shift is due to fringing fields around the antenna, which makes the patch seem longer. Hence, when designing a patch antenna it is typically trimmed by 2-4% to achieve resonance at the desired frequency. The fringing fields around the antenna can help explain why the microstrip antenna radiates. Consider the side view of a patch antenna, shown in Figure 4. Note that since the current at the end of the patch is zero (open circuit end), the current is maximum at the center of the half-wave patch and (theoretically) zero at the beginning of the patch. This low current value at the feed explains in part why the impedance is high when fed at the end.The designed Microstrip patch antenna with four slits and a pair of truncated corners are simulated using CST for finding the electric far field radiation, gain, directivity, radiation pattern etc. The electric far field of the Microstrip patch antenna is shown in figure 4.5.The gain of the E far field is 270 mv. The operated frequency is 8.52 GHz.
Designing microstrip filters with good performance is new technology and human science and has wide applications in various fields such as: Physics, chemistry, mechanics, and electricity. In this paper, we have designed and simulated a band-pass filter with central frequency of 1.1 GHz. We used microstrip lines with odd and even impedance in order to design such a filter; the results ensure the performance of filter. We draw filter substitution map in order to improve the work.
propagation delay time within embedded microstrip lines have presented higher time delays for different materials based this type in compared with surface microstrip lines. Characteristic impedance and signal propagation delay times are taken into account for these microstrip lines under sturdy considerations in optical transmission spectrum regions.
ABSTRACT:This research presents innovative design of a compact reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna system using different rectangular rings. Switching between different frequency band is achieved using six RF-MEMS switches. The antenna is capable to reconfigure up to three different frequency bands. Empirical relations relating to the design for rectangular rings for desired frequency band are included in the Paper. The proposed microstrip patch antenna structure is fed by microstrip line feed. The antenna is designed to operate at 2.4 GHz, 3.5 GHz and 4.8 GHz. The proposed antenna provides triple bands in which the bandwidth of 367MHz for 2.45 GHz, 799MHz for 3.5 GHz and a bandwidth of 3.47 GHz for 4.8 GHz has been obtained.The design and functional simulation of the proposed antenna structure is performed by using HFSS-v13. Simulated and measured results are used to demonstrate the performance of the antenna. The proposed reconfigurable antenna is low profile, compact and small in size. There is good agreement between the measurement and simulation results of this research provides ample justification for compatibility and application of the structure for many wireless communications such as WLAN, WI-MAX, UMTS.
Feeding techniques are also important for designing the antenna. There are different types of feeding techniques for Microstrip antenna out of that co- axial feed method is adopted for this paper. The outer conductor of co-axial probe is connected to ground plane. The outer conductor is of copper while inner conductor is of Teflon. By the availability of latest simulation software, it has become very easy to implement our ideas. Here, the total size of antenna is 60mmx60mm. Total height of antenna is 8.225mm.
From eq. 1, microstrip antenna should have a length equal to one half of a wavelength within the dielectric (substrate) medium. The width W of the microstrip antenna is responsible for the input impedance. Results increase widths also increase the bandwidth. By increasing the width, the impedance can be reduced. However, to decrease the input impedance to often require a very wide patch antenna, which takes up a lot of valuable space. The width also controls the radiation pattern. - 
Abstract: This present paper investigates how the defects of different shapes and sizes in the Slots (A, C, E, L, U) of a Microstrip Patch Antenna & improves its technical parameters like Gain, Return Loss, efficiency etc. This has been done by examining and experimenting by cutting different shapes of defects in the Slot of a Microstrip Patch Antenna. The performance and advantages of Microstrip antenna such as low cost, low profile, low weight made them perfect choice for communication systems engineers.
In recent years, the micro-strip antenna has made progress in wireless communication. Micro-strip antennas are more popular these days because of; it has better results and more advantages over conventional antenna. These antennas are low weighted; cost is low, low profile, easy to design, low volume, and congruity. Dual circular polarization, dual frequency operations are provided by the micro-strip patch antenna. To improve the bandwidth of the proposed antenna, DGS & CPW feed techniques are used in this paper.(1,3) The aim of this paper is to present the advantages of DGS & CPW in dense size of the antenna as well as to obtain the wide frequency band and impedance matching. Different
slot loaded techniques and L probe feed are provides the bandwidth enhancement up to 30% and 40% respectively which has an advantage of size of antenna is remain small. Using shorting pin and shorting wall reduces the size of antenna significantly at the expense of bandwidth. Ali A. Dheyab et. Al in this paper have presented the use of transmission line method to analyze the rectangular microstrip antenna . RMPA operating of resonance frequency (2.4GHz) for TM10 mode, with the coaxial probe feed used the antenna is matched by choosing the proper feed position. A micostrip patch antenna has the advantages of low cost, light weight, and low profile planner configuration. However, they suffer from the disadvantage of low operating bandwidth [1-2]. Bandwidth improves as the substrate thickness is increased, or the dielectric constant is reduced, but these trends are limited by an inductive impedance offset that increases with thickness. A logical approach, therefore, is to use a thick substrate or replacing the substrate by air or thick foam, the dielectric constants are usually in the range of (2.2≤ εr ≤12) 
In  proposed a microstrip reception apparatus has a curved shape slot with U-shape opening expelling from this patch. In this design of micro-strip antenna partial ground is used. The proposed antenna in this paper is straightforward and minimal in measure giving broadband impedance coordinating. The whole antenna measure is 44×44×1.6 as appeared in fig. (1). By cutting a space in the patch of U-shape gives the coveted focus indent recurrence of 5.5 GHz as appeared in fig.(2)
The simulation carried out on the new proposed stub loaded antenna configuration both for LHCP and RHCP have provided a useful design for a circular microstrip antenna with enhanced bandwidth using controllable dual frequency arrangement where the primary resonant frequency is fixed and the secondary resonance frequency shifts continuously towards the primary and finally overlapped with the same
Abstract: A wide band dual-beam microstrip antenna is proposed in this communication. Two radiation beams off broadside are obtained by Operating the patch antenna at the higher order mode instead of the Fundamental mode, this radiates a broadside beam. Broadening the antenna bandwidth is achieved by using the U-slot technique. Unlike previous work on the conventional U-slot micro-strip antenna, the effect of the U-slot inclusion on the performance of a patch antenna operating at the mode is studied across the entire achieved bandwidth. The antenna analysis is carried out with the aid of full wave simulation, and an antenna prototype is fabricated and measured for validation. Good agreements between the simulated and measured results are observed. The antenna operating frequency range is 5.18–5.8 GHz with VSWR less than 2, which corresponds to 11.5% impedance bandwidth. It exhibits two radiation beams, directed at 35% and % with 7.92 dBi and 5.94 dBi realized gain, respectively at 5.5 GHz.
absolute error at each value of feed position of micro-strip antenna as result of training study with Levenberg-Marquard algorithm is shown in Fig.7. It is observed that maximum absolute value of absolute error between target value and estimated value of feed position by neurocomputaional model is found to be only 0.00121891747241 and that of Percentageage error is 0.05131808451160 as summarized in Table-1.
This paper presented an experimental study on the micro-strip dual-band filter based on wireless sensor network nodes. Firstly, according to the order, the pos- ition of the transmission zeros, and the ripple coeffi- cients in the band of the filter to be designed, the generalized Chebyshev filter function synthesis method is applied to synthesize a single-passband filter by com- bining the relationship between the short-circuit admit- tance parameters. The coupling matrix of the single- passband filter is obtained. Secondly, the generalized Chebyshev function polynomial is constructed according to the symmetrical frequency conversion equations from single-band to dual-band, and the coupling matrix of the dual-band filter is synthesized by the relationship be- tween the generalized Chebyshev function polynomial and the short-circuit admittance parameters. Finally, the normalized frequency domain is mapped to the actual frequency domain, and the S parameter response curve in the actual frequency domain is obtained. By flexibly controlling the transmission zeros of the generalized Chebyshev filter, the selectivity and stop-band isolation of the filter can be effectively improved, and this method can design multi-band filters with excellent performance and has a positive guiding role in the physical circuit de- sign of micro-strip filters based on wireless sensor net- work nodes.
ABSTRACT: Due to fast advancement in wireless communication technology, use of small size antenna has rapidly improved. Not only the size of the antenna its cost, performance, ease of installation everything have been taken care while designing the antenna. To meet this entire requirement micro-strip antenna is proposed. Nowadays microstrip antennas are used in many places such as aircrafts, spacecraft’s, satellite and missile applications. In this paper, we discuss the microstrip antenna, types of microstrip antenna, a variety of substrates used for designing the antenna and the literature survey which we have done.
There exist several wireless band standards such as IEEE 802.16 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX) system around 3.3–3.7 GHz and IEEE 802.11a wireless local area network (WLAN) in the frequency band of 5.15–5.35GHz and 5.725–5.825 GHz, which have found wide applications in wireless communication systems. Thus, a broadband CP antenna that can operate at Wi MAX and WLAN bands is highly required  .Micro-strip antenna is a simple antenna that consists of radiated patch component, dielectric substrate, and ground plane. The radiated patch and ground plane is a thin layer of copper or gold which is a good conductor. Each dielectric substrate has their own dielectric permittivity values. This permittivity will influence the size of the antenna. Choose of substrate is also important, we have to consider the temperature, humanity, and other environmental ranges of operating. Thickness of the substrate h has a big effect on the resonant frequency and bandwidth BW of the antenna. Bandwidth of the microstrip antenna will increase with increasing of substrate thickness h but with limits, otherwise the antenna will stop resonating.  .Micro-strip antenna is a low profile antenna.
Microstrip antennas are characterized by a largernumber of physical parameters than conventional microwave antennas. They can be designed to have many geometrical shapes and dimensions but rectangular and circular Microstripresonant patches have been used extensively in many applications. In this paper, the design of strip line feed rectangular microstrip patch antenna is for wireless applications is presented and is expected upto 3GHz frequency span.Its performance characteristics which include Return Loss, VSWR, Gain and current density are obtained from the simulation.