Top PDF Programming Embedded Systems using C - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Programming Embedded Systems using C - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Programming Embedded Systems using C - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Please note that these simulators are not simply ‘toys’ to be used only when learn- ing how to develop embedded software. Even where hardware will be constructed, most developers will conduct early software tests on a simulator before using the hardware. This can greatly speed up the development process. For example, in applications using a serial interface (see Chapter 9), the simulator can determine the precise baud rate being generated by your software: this can avoid many sub- sequent problems. In addition, the simulator provides key facilities for debugging, such as support for ‘profiling’ the code, a process that will typically involve meas- uring the duration of particular functions. As we will see in subsequent chapters, timing plays a central role in most embedded applications, and the ability to measure function durations in a straightforward way makes the simulator a key debugging tool.
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The C++ Hackers Guide - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The C++ Hackers Guide - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

This hack has proved useful to myself in a number of occasions. The first was a file system problem. It seemed that when the computer was shutdown and there were files being written to the disk, the operating system would pad the unwritten sectors with blocks containing all zeros. Fortunately the magic numbers were there and the program realized that it had read something that was half a good record and half something else and discarded the data.

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Optimizing Software in C++ - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Optimizing Software in C++ - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

There are various methods for communication and synchronization between threads, such as semaphores, mutexes and message systems. All of these methods are time consuming. Therefore, the data and resources should be organized so that the amount of necessary communication between threads is minimized. For example, if multiple threads are sharing the same queue, list, database, or other data structure, then you may consider if it is possible to give each thread its own data structure and then merge the multiple data structures in the end when all threads have finished the time-consuming data processing. Running multiple threads on a system with only one logical processor is not an advantage if the threads are competing for the same resources. But it can be a good idea to put time- consuming calculations into a separate thread with lower priority than the user interface. It is also useful to put file access and network access in separate threads so that one thread can do calculations while another thread is waiting for response from a hard disk or network.
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The Rook's Guide to C++ - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The Rook's Guide to C++ - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Separate compilation is the process of breaking a C++ program into separate files to improve organization. Parts of the program can be spread out over a number of different files that are later compiled individually, then linked using a linker to produce the final, working program. When changes are made, only those files with changes need to be recompiled, the result of which can then be relinked with the previously-compiled files. is process is nearly invisible in most development environments, which recompile and relink these files automatically. When the de- velopment environment takes care of these details, the user is le with the sole task of making changes where they are needed.
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The Objective-C 2.0 Programming Language - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The Objective-C 2.0 Programming Language - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

In a few cases, it might be impossible for an init... method to do what it’s asked to do. For example, an initFromFile: method might get the data it needs from a file passed as an argument. If the file name it’s passed doesn’t correspond to an actual file, it won’t be able to complete the initialization. In such a case, the init... method could free the receiver and return nil , indicating that the requested object can’t be created. Because an init... method might return an object other than the newly allocated receiver, or even return nil , it’s important that programs use the value returned by the initialization method, not just that returned by alloc or allocWithZone: . The following code is very dangerous, since it ignores the return of init .
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C++ GUI Programming with Qt 3 - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

C++ GUI Programming with Qt 3 - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

When none of Qt’s widgets are suitable for the task at hand, and when there’s no way to combine or adapt existing widgets to obtain the desired result, we can still create the widget we want. This is achieved by subclassing QWidget and reimplementing a few event handlers to paint the widget and to respond to mouse clicks. This approach gives us complete freedom to define and control both the appearance and the behavior of our widget. Qt’s built-in widgets, like QLabel , QPushButton , and QTable , are implemented this way. If they didn’t exist in Qt, it would still be possible to create them ourselves using the public functions provided by QWidget in a totally platform-independent manner. To demonstrate how to write a custom widget using this approach, we will create the IconEditor widget shown in Figure 5.2. The IconEditor is a widget that could be used in an icon editing program.
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Object Oriented Programming with ANSI-C - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Object Oriented Programming with ANSI-C - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

We know what ooc has to do. How do we write the preprocessor? For reasons of efficiency, we may eventually have to resort to a platform like lex and yacc, but a first implementation is a lot cheaper if we use a string programming language like awk or perl. If this works out, we know the necessary algorithms and data struc- tures, and it should be easy to transcribe them into a more efficient implementa- tion; we might even use something like an awk to C translator to do the job. Above all, however, with a cheap first implementation we can verify that our idea is feasi- ble and convenient in the first place.
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Bootstrap Programming Cookbook - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Bootstrap Programming Cookbook - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

To conclude, just like any other framework, Bootstrap’s mission is to make coding as easy as possible, at the same time, providing well-organized classes and structure of the hierarchy as a whole. Navbars are probably one of the elements found on every single website. They vary from design and number of elements, but the core remains the same when using the framework. The default navbar can be customized in a number of ways that you can try at your own pace.

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C# 1: Introduction to programming and the C# language - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

C# 1: Introduction to programming and the C# language - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Most of the methods are simple. The method Put() must leave a note in the purse, but it can only do it if there is room. Therefore it must test, if it is. If there is not space, the method returns false without doing anything. Otherwise, it put the note in the purse and returns true. The two methods IsEmpty() and IsFull() is quite trivial. The method Has() go through the notes in the purse with a for loop to check if you have the bank note, which is queried. Note that this is a requirement that the note class implements the method Equals() correctly with value semantic. It’s something that the abstract class BankNote solves. The method where there is most to note is the method Pay(). Basically it consists of a loop that runs through the notes in the purse to find a note with the correct value. If you find a note, there are two things to do: the note must be removed from the purse, and the method must return the note. The first thing is solved by putting the note on the last place onto the place where the note should be removed. Note that this requires that you first save a copy of the note to be returned. Also note that the variable count is counted down with the one. If the purse does not have a bank note with the desired value, there is a problem because that the method should return something. It has been solved by letting the method returns a null reference. It is a solution that can be discussed much, but conversely a solution that is widely used, and at least gives the user the ability to test whether the purses had the desired note. It is important to note that both the interface IPurse and the implementation Purse know nothing about the actual banknote classes, but only knows the interface IBankNote. It means that you with no problems can add new banknotes classes and without the need to modify the code for Purse.
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Notes on Data Structures and Programming Techniques - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Notes on Data Structures and Programming Techniques - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

All of these types are defined as aliases for standard integer types using typedef ; the main advantage of using stdint.h over defining them yourself is that if somebody ports your code to a new architecture, stdint.h should take care of choosing the right types automatically. The main disadvantage is that, like many C99 features, stdint.h is not universally available on all C compilers. Also, because these fixed-width types are a late addition to the language, the built-in routines for printing and parsing integers, as well as the mechanisms for specifying the size of an integer constant, are not adapted to deal with them. But if you do need to print or parse types defined in stdint.h , the larger inttypes.h header defines macros that give the corresponding format strings for printf and scanf . The inttypes.h file includes stdint.h , so you do not need to include both. Below is an example of a program that uses the various features provided by inttypes.h and stdint.h .
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Interfacing with C++: Programming Real-World Applications - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Interfacing with C++: Programming Real-World Applications - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Polymorphism is the key to harnessing the great benefits of virtual functions. It is possible for a programmer to use a virtual function in a program without knowing which object it will be used with at run-time (when the program is executing). The program will be written generically to suit all classes of the hierarchy. The programmer does not need to write the complex logic for selecting the correct function to suit the object chosen by the user at run-time. This task is passed on to the compiler and linker, simplifying the programming task immensely. This is of most benefit for programs with large numbers of classes and complex hierarchies. As an example, a programmer can write a generic program in which the virtual function Show is used to show any object in the hierarchy. The user of the program decides at run time, the actual object the function Show will operate on. The programmer has not needed to develop the full range of complex logic needed to handle whatever type of object from the shape class the user will choose at a particular time. Nonetheless, the correct Show function for that object type will automatically be selected during program operation. This concept will be demonstrated in detail in Chapter 8.
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C++ In Action: Industrial Strength Programming Techniques - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

C++ In Action: Industrial Strength Programming Techniques - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The art of programming is in a very peculiar situation. It is developing so fast, that people who started programming when C was in its infancy are still very active in the field. In other sciences a lot of progress was made through natural attrition. The computer revolution happened well within one generation. Granted, a lot of programmers made enough money to be able to afford doing volunteer work for the rest of their lives. Still, many others are carrying around their old (although only a few years old) bag of tricks that they learned when they were programming XT’s with 64k memory.
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Practical Foundations for Programming Languages - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Practical Foundations for Programming Languages - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The notion of state in a computation—which will be discussed thoroughly in Part XIII—has its origins in the concept of recursion, or self-reference, which, as we have just seen, arises from the concept of recursive types. For example, you may be familiar with the concept of a flip-flop or a latch at the hardware level. These are circuits built from combinational logic elements (typically, nor or nand gates) that have the characteristic that they maintain an alterable state over time. An RS latch, for example, maintains its output at the logical level of zero or one in response to a signal on the R or S inputs, respectively, after a brief settling delay. This behavior is achieved using feedback, which is just a form of self-reference, or recursion: the output of the gate is fed back into its input so as to convey the current state of the gate to the logic that determines its next state.
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LATEX Tutorials: A Primer - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

LATEX Tutorials: A Primer - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

So, why all this trouble? Why not simply use a word processor? The answer lies in the motivation behind TEX. Donald Knuth says that his aim in creating TEX is to beautifully typeset technical documents especially those containing a lot of Mathematics. It is very difficult (sometimes even impossible) to produce complex mathematical formulas using a word processor. Again, even for ordinary text, if you want your document to look really beautiful then L A TEX is the natural choice.

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Embedded Software Development with eCos - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Embedded Software Development with eCos - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

eCos is designed as a configurable component architecture consisting of several key software components such as the kernel and the HAL. The fundamental goal is to allow construction of a complete embedded system from these reusable software components. This allows you to select different configuration options within the software component, or remove unused components altogether, in order to create a system that specifically matches the requirements of your applica- tion. By creating an eCos image that closely matches your system requirements, the size of the software is compact, only including used components. The software application is also faster because extra code is not executed, compared to other real-time operating systems that do not offer configurability and, therefore, incorporate all functionality regardless if it is required by the application.
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Advanced Linux Programming - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Advanced Linux Programming - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Sockets connecting processes through the Internet use the Internet namespace rep- resented by PF_INET .The most common protocols are TCP/IP.The Internet Protocol (IP), a low-level protocol, moves packets through the Internet, splitting and rejoining the packets, if necessary. It guarantees only “best-effort” delivery, so packets may vanish or be reordered during transport. Every participating computer is specified using a unique IP number.The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), layered on top of IP, pro- vides reliable connection-ordered transport. It permits telephone-like connections to be established between computers and ensures that data is delivered reliably and in order.
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Programming Memory-Constrained Networked Embedded Systems - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Programming Memory-Constrained Networked Embedded Systems - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

I have always loved programming. When I was a kid, my father sometimes brought home a computer that he used in teaching computer programming to mathematic teacher students at the university. The computer was an ABC80, a Swedish Z80-based computer with a BASIC interpreter and 16 kilobytes of RAM. I learned programming BASIC from modifying my father’s programs and by typing in BASIC programs from the manual. The programs were very small and I was never limited by the small amount of memory. A few years later I got my first own computer, a Commodore 64 with 64 kilobytes of RAM. I was so eager to start programming that I had already learned programming the assembly language of its 6510 processor by reading books on the subject before I got the actual computer. Over the years, I wrote a large number of assembly language programs for it and frequently felt that its memory was a limitation. Some six or seven years later I bought my first PC, with a 486 microprocessor and 16 megabytes of RAM. I quickly learned x86 assembly language but never came anywhere near writing a program that used the entire memory of the machine.
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Deep C (and C++) - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Deep C (and C++) - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Then you must increase the warning level, the value of a is certainly undefined after the assignment and increment because you violate one of the fundamental rules in C (and C++). The rules for sequencing says that you can only update a variable once between sequence points. Here you try to update it two times, and this causes a to become undefined.

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The GNU C Programming Tutorial - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The GNU C Programming Tutorial - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

ŠˆÀ^À Äì~ï"ëÍÈvjiÙ"†ÄF,Ñ ŠÀ^ÀlëfêDâlãhêDâÍÉ«]Ù(ÆiÑ ŠˆÀ^ÀvDílì,ÄëîsíMÑ ŠÀMÀsáíhôsãTÑåŠÀMÀsê3îfïlèhíMÑ. ŠˆÀ^À"ílì&î`ûfëfé0ÑýòjÄJB‹òvjÄF[r]

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C++ Essentials - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

C++ Essentials - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

This chapter introduces the various forms of C++ statements for composing programs. Statements represent the lowest-level building blocks of a program. Roughly speaking, each statement represents a computational step which has a certain side-effect. (A side-effect can be thought of as a change in the program state, such as the value of a variable changing because of an assignment.) Statements are useful because of the side-effects they cause, the combination of which enables the program to serve a specific purpose (e.g., sort a list of names).

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