Random Linear Network Coding

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Selection of coding vectors for Random Linear Network Coding

Selection of coding vectors for Random Linear Network Coding

packets for broadcasting. The challenge in implementation of random linear network coding is, a node has to compute coding coefficients randomly during every time slot such that it should enhance the rank of decoding matrix at the receiver. These coding vectors are termed as valid coding vectors. At every receiver the individual packets could be decoded from M successfully received error free coded packets provided the coding vectors stacked to form an M x M decoding matrix is invertible. That is equivalently the decoding matrix has a full rank.
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ON THE APPLICATION OF RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING FOR NETWORK SECURITY AND DIAGNOSIS

ON THE APPLICATION OF RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING FOR NETWORK SECURITY AND DIAGNOSIS

by Elias Kehdi June 2009 Abstract Recent studies show that network coding improves multicast session throughput. In this thesis, we demonstrate how random linear network coding can be incorporated to provide security and network diagnosis for peer-to-peer systems. First, we seek to design a se- curity scheme for network coding architectures which are highly susceptible to jamming attacks. We evaluate Null Keys, a novel and computationally efficient security algorithm, by studying its application in real-world topologies. Null Keys is a cooperative security based on the subspace properties of network coding. We then present a new trace collec- tion protocol that allows operators to diagnose peer-to-peer networks. Existing solutions are not scalable and fail to collect measurements from departed peers. We use progressive random linear network coding to disseminate the traces in the network, from which the server pulls data in a delayed fashion. We leverage the power of progressive encoding to increase block diversity and tolerate block losses.
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On the Performance of Random Linear Network Coding in Relay Networks

On the Performance of Random Linear Network Coding in Relay Networks

Email: ramin@cs.umass.edu, kurose@cs.umass.edu, and towsley@cs.umass.edu † CS Department, University of Calgary, Calgary, CA Email: mghaderi@ucalgary.ca Abstract—We compare the reliability performance gain of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) with Auto- matic Repeat Request (ARQ) for a wireless relay network taking into account overhead and complexity of feedback mechanism as well as overhead due to encoding vector embedded in packet header under RLNC. Our goal is not to propose a new ARQ or RLNC error control protocol, but rather to study the fundamental properties of ARQ and RLNC under condition of finite block sizes. We consider an Enhanced ARQ (ARQ-E) scheme that exploits sender side path diversity between the sender and the relays as well as a Single Path Routing (ARQ-SPR) scheme that uses a hop-by-hop ARQ protocol. The performance metric of interest is reliability gain, the expected number of channel uses per data bit received at the receiver. In the case of AWGN channels, we compare the reliability performance of these protocols with each other and observe the fact that RLNC provides limited performance gains.
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Decoding delay performance of random linear network coding for broadcast

Decoding delay performance of random linear network coding for broadcast

In random linear network coding for broadcast, a transmitter segments data into generations of K source packets each. For a given generation, the transmitter broadcasts coded packets, which are obtained by linearly combining the K source packets of that generation over a finite field. A receiver needs to recover K linearly independent coded packets in order to reconstruct the K source packets of the generation using Gaussian elimination. The average decoding delay experienced by a receiver is the mean time required for the recovery of a generation. The average decoding delay imposed to the system is the expected number of time steps needed by all receivers to decode a generation [10]. The average decoding delay of the system can be computed by observing the decoding delay at each receiver, recording the longest delay for every generation, and averaging over a long run of generations.
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Performance Analysis of an Implementation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC)

Performance Analysis of an Implementation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC)

ABSTRACT: Network coding is a modern technique that has captured the interest of experts in Information theory and telecommunications field because of increase in throughput, robustness and decrease of energy consumption. Network coding has various application in security, video transmission etc. In this paper we aim to learn the features of network coding through the implementation of Random Linear Network Coding for a specific network. Simulation results show the encoding and decoding of a message through the network. The source node sends an image through the intermediate nodes to the destination. Network coding is applied at intermediate nodes. The entire simulation was simulated in MATLAB environment.
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Random Linear Network Coding for 5G Mobile Video Delivery

Random Linear Network Coding for 5G Mobile Video Delivery

2 University of Bristol, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Bristol, UK; a.tassi@bristol.ac.uk 3 University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering, Edinburgh, UK; C.Khirallah@ed.ac.uk * Correspondence: dejanv@uns.ac.rs; Tel.: +381-21-485-2535 Abstract: Exponential increase in mobile video delivery will continue with the demand for higher resolution, multi-view and large-scale multicast video services. Novel fifth generation (5G) 3GPP New Radio (NR) standard will bring a number of new opportunities for optimizing video delivery across both 5G core and radio access network. One of the promising approaches for video quality adaptation, throughput enhancement and erasure protection is the use of packet-level random linear network coding (RLNC). In this work, we discuss the integration of RLNC into the 5G NR standard, building upon the ideas and opportunities identified in 4G LTE. We explicitly identify and discuss in detail novel 5G NR features that provide support for RLNC-based video delivery in 5G, thus pointing out to the promising avenues for future research.
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Random linear network coding for satellite aided flight data streaming

Random linear network coding for satellite aided flight data streaming

When random linear network coding (RLNC) [7] is used, main stations report to the satellite the number – but not the indices – of data packets that they have collected. This is equivalent to reporting the rank of each matrix D m for m ∈ M. The satellite determines and transmits the maximum number of required coded packets based on K−min{rk( D 1 ), . . . , rk( D |M| )}. Coded packets are random linear combinations of data packets. In other words, the elements of C ∆×K are selected uniformly at random from F q , where q is a prime power. For a fair comparison between RLNC and index coding, the encoding operations are performed over F 2 in this paper.
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Opportunistic relaying and random linear network coding for secure and reliable communication

Opportunistic relaying and random linear network coding for secure and reliable communication

Opportunistic relaying and random linear network coding for secure and reliable communication Amjad Saeed Khan, Student Member, IEEE and Ioannis Chatzigeorgiou, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract—Opportunistic relaying has the potential to achieve full diversity gain, while random linear network coding (RLNC) can reduce latency and energy consumption. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the integration of both schemes into wireless networks in order to reap their benefits while taking into account security concerns. This paper considers a multi-relay network, where relay nodes employ RLNC to encode confidential data and transmit coded packets to a desti- nation in the presence of an eavesdropper. Four relay selection protocols are studied covering a range of network capabilities, such as the availability of the eavesdropper’s channel state information or the possibility to pair the selected relay with a node that intentionally generates interference. For each case, expressions for the probability that a coded packet will not be recovered by a receiver, which can be either the destination or the eavesdropper, are derived. Based on those expressions, a framework is developed that characterizes the probability of the eavesdropper intercepting a sufficient number of coded packets and partially or fully recovering the confidential data. Simulation results confirm the validity and accuracy of the theoretical framework and unveil the security-reliability trade-offs attained by each RLNC-enabled relay selection protocol.
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Advanced Error Control Scheme for Noncoherent Random Linear Network Coding

Advanced Error Control Scheme for Noncoherent Random Linear Network Coding

in distributed storage systems. In this approach, random linear network coding is used to encode coded blocks in distributed storage networks. Hence, this approach is not directly comparable to our work, which focuses on the decoding issue of linear network coding in general and applies to a wide variety of applications. The other approach [45, 46] aims to take advantage of the statistical correlation of data generated by distributed sensor networks. A salient feature of this approach is that in theory data are real values and linear combinations are now performed over the real (or complex) field. The rationale for this is that the real representation of data is a more natural one for sensor networks [45, 46]. In practice, data are represented in a finite precision system. It has been shown that information loss due to finite precision grows with the network size [47]. In contrast, in our work network coding remains over some finite fields, and hence our scheme does not suffer the information loss due to finite precision as the approach in [45,46]. Thus, the full rank decoder remains the most relevant previous work, and henceforth we compare our rank deficient decoders with the full rank decoder only.
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A Novel Approach in MANETS for Random Linear Network Coding and Broadcasting

A Novel Approach in MANETS for Random Linear Network Coding and Broadcasting

productive polynomial calculations for CODEB. A similar calculation isn't ideal for COPE. V. CONCLUSION Broadcast operation is frequently utilized both to disperse data to all hubs and for discovering unicast smises in military ad-hoc networks. In this way, broadcast effectiveness is imperative. Because of the conceivably powerful nature of ad hoc networks, limited calculations are substantially more hearty and viable with less upkeep overhead. In this project, i demonstrate to consolidate organize coding into a non-coding based confined calculation called PDP for enhancing broadcast effectiveness. While i delineate my approach with regards to PDP, my CODEB coding calculation can conceivably be connected to other non-coding based plans. The calculation tries to improve the coding increases given an arrangement of local bundles and the subset of parcels each neighbor gets. I plan two coding calculations: a XOR-based basic coding calculation that empowers unraveling without sitting tight for more coded parcels to arrive and a Reed-Solomon-based coding calculation that is ideal hover requires a hub to hold up until the point when it gets the fitting number of coded bundles. The principal issue is NP-hard. I diagram a basic avaricious calculation. The second can be understood effectively and ideally utilizing Reed-Solomon codes. My broad recreation demonstrates that non-coding based plan sends as much as 60% more bundles with lessened parcel conveyance proportion. For future work, i mean to investigate more on the unwavering quality issue and execute CODEB in a genuine 802.11-based mobile ad hoc test bed with a specific end goal to completely assess its efficacy.
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Peer-Assisted Content Distribution With Random Linear Network Coding. Worksheets

Peer-Assisted Content Distribution With Random Linear Network Coding. Worksheets

That means that the description in subsection 6.1.2 was not implemented in the final test setup. Furthermore variance with some distribution is not supported in Dummynet. For further details see section 6.3 When the application has to be tested, it is desireable to test the application in an enviro- ment which is as close to a real world scenario as possible, and preferably at the same time perform a test which can be reproduced. Defining what a “real world” scenario is is a complex task, and [Floyd 01] state that there exist no single suite of simulation scenarios that can test a protocol for its behavior in the future evolving internet. And since the internet is rapidly ever evolving, testing a protocol in a test enviroment does not make it easyer. Another issue is the size of a given test setup. The real internet contains millions of nodes, routers and so on. A number and complexity we can not get near in a laboraty. The special case errors that may appear a number of times on the real internet because of its size and diversity may happen very seldom if even at all in the laboraty. Our focus on our test in the lab will therefore be based on some more basic attributes. To get closer on how the application would perform on the internet it could be argued that getting random users on the internet to download the application and test it would get us close to a “real world” scenario. But would the users that download the application for testing in any way represent another set of users actually using the application, if it were released into the public. Getting random real life users to test the application on the internet also makes it very hard to reproduce our test, since we do not have a well definet test enviroment, and without a somewhat well defined test enviroment it is also hard to measure what effect the change of a given variable would have on the application if the enviroment has changed in the mean time.
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Characterisation and performance analysis of random linear network coding for reliable and secure communication

Characterisation and performance analysis of random linear network coding for reliable and secure communication

Opportunistic relaying has the potential to achieve full diversity gain, while RLNC can reduce latency and energy consumption. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the integration of both schemes into wireless networks in order to reap their benefits while taking into account security concerns. This section considers a multi-relay network, where relay nodes employ RLNC to encode confidential data and transmit coded packets to a destination in the presence of an eavesdropper. Four relay selection protocols are studied covering a range of network capabilities, such as the availability of the eavesdropper’s channel state information or the possibility to pair the selected relay with a node that intentionally generates interference. For each case, expressions for the probability that a coded packet will not be decoded by a receiver, which can be either the destination or the eavesdropper, are derived. Based on those expressions, a framework is developed that characterizes the probability of the eavesdropper intercepting a sufficient number of coded packets and partially or fully decoding the confidential data. Simulation results confirm the validity and accuracy of the theoretical framework and unveil the security-reliability trade-offs attained by each RLNC-enabled relay selection protocol.
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RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD 
RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

Keywords: Random Network Coding, Multipath Transmission, Secure Transmission, H-CRAN, Robustness 1. INTRODUCTION With the integration of multi radio interfaces to mobile devices, transmission of network information and user data is possible through different relays or base stations. So, in the next generation wireless to keep backward compatibility, signaling can be done through existing MBS and user data can be communicated through densely deployed RRHs in small cells increasing the area traffic capacity which bring the user devices closer to the relays which reduce the latency. New perspective on cloud computing based heterogeneous architecture to enhance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency and to address the high area traffic capacity, H-CRAN has been introduced in [1-3]. Peng et al. [1] studied the performance of conventional HetNets and cloud computing based heterogeneous cloud radio access
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RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD 
RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

cloud-based Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) authentication, such that the cloud data were preserved, and cannot be compromised. This protocol had attained mutua[r]

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RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD 
RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

1) The WCDH algorithm gives the data in the underlying distribution dataset different weights according to their position (i.e., whether before or after the drift). Whi[r]

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RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD 
RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

It involves the embedding of secret text message over a secret image using wavelet and genetic algorithm based steganography, and then the generated stego image is encrypted using a fi[r]

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RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD 
RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

The presented method is based on the detection of the zeros in the change of the intensity, the masks of convolutions obtained by the calculus of the second derivat[r]

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RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD 
RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

multi agent system that being used by the cloud environment to help in choosing the best resources and to create negotiation technique between cloud providers and users to [r]

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RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD 
RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

In this work, an algorithm has been introduced to find the permutation in symmetric group using soft topological space to structure permutation topological space. odd, sp[r]

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RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD 
RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

RANDOM LINEAR NETWORK CODING BASED MULTIPATH TRAFFICS OVER HETEROGENEOUS CLOUD RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

fiber, a small glass sphere (non imaging microsphere) in contact with both the fiber and the source, a larger spherical lens used to image the source on the core are[r]

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