# Bi-level programming

### Integrating Goal Programming, Taylor Series, Kuhn-Tucker Conditions, and Penalty Function Approaches to Solve Linear Fractional Bi-level Programming Problems

... goal programming (GP), Tay- lor Series, Kuhn-Tucker conditions and Penalty Function approaches to solve linear fractional bi-level programming ...lower level problem, we transform the ...

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### A robust bi-level programming model for designing a closed-loop supply chain considering government's collection policy

... based bi-level programming approaches were proposed to incorporate uncertainty of ...to bi-level programming can be considered as another future work ...

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### An Effective Branch-and-cut algorithm in Order to Solve the Mixed Integer Bi-level Programming

... lower level unit (follower) is called hierarchical ...some level of autonomy, this process becomes more complex to implement, coordinate and ...mathematical programming environment, these interactive ...

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### A bi-level programming approach to coordinating pricing and ordering decisions in a multi-channel supply chain

... a bi-level programming problem. The upper level problem is a mathematical model dealing with decisions of the manufacturer, while the lower level is a Nash equilibrium model determining ...

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### A Modified Simplex Method for Solving Linear-Quadratic and Linear Fractional Bi-Level Programming Problem

... The bi-level programming problem (BLP) is a suitable method for solving the real and complex problems in applicable areas such as management, economics, policies and planning and so ...

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### Pricing and advertising decisions in a dominant-retailer supply chain: A multi-follower bi-level programming approach

... This study considered a two-stage supply chain consisting of one dominant retailer and multiple com- petitive manufactures which produce several perishable and substitutable products. The aim of this study was ...

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### Pricing decisions in a two-echelon decentralized supply chain using bi-level programming approach

... specifically bi-level programming seems to be the best approach to overcome the ...proposed bi-level model is NP-hard, a simulated annealing method combining with Tabu search is ...

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### A bi-level programming model for decentralized manufacturer-distributer supply chain considering cooperative advertising

... a bi-level programming prob- lem is referred to as Stackelberg ...a bi-level programming problem that, even in its simplest form (linear objective function and constraint), has ...

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### Research of Flow Allocation Optimization in Hybrid Software Defined Networks Based on Bi-level Programming

... As a transition from Traditional Networks to Software Defined Networks, Hybrid Software Defined Networks (SDN) shows significant research value. Hybrid SDN successfully faces the challenges that SDN comes with, such as ...

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### Coordination of pricing and cooperative advertising for perishable products in a two-echelon supply chain: A bi-level programming approach

... a bi-level programming problem (BLPP) facilitates the formulation of the problems that involve a hierarchical decision making process, the considered problem will be modeled as a ...

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### Chance Constrained Linear Plus Linear Fractional Bi level Programming Problem

... fractional bi- level programming problem (CCLPLFBLPP). In bi-level programming problem (BLPP), two types of decision makers (DMs) ...upper level decision maker (ULDM) and ...

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### A Metaheuristic Framework for Bi-level Programming Problems with Multi-disciplinary Applications

... Abstract Bi-level programming problems arise in situations when the decision maker has to take into account the responses of the users to his ...the bi-level pro- gramming framework. ...

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### Designing the optimum plan for regenerating the pedestrian network of historic districts using bi-level programming (Case study: Historical-Cultural district of Tehran, Iran)

... a bi-level programming model is presented in which the lower level is a multi-class user equilibrium pedestrian assignment algorithm and the upper level problem is a multi-objective ...

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### An application of data mining classification and bi-level programming for optimal credit allocation

... using bi-level ...in bi-level credit allocation; at the first level government/public related institutes must allocate the credit strategically concerning sustainable development to ...

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### A bi-level programming approach for trip matrix estimation and traffic control problems with stochastic user equilibrium link flows

... single programming problem with the upper-level variables being constrained by the lower-level ...linear programming (NP) ...upper- level objective function requires solving the ...

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### Bi-level programming for supplier selection under quantity discount policy

... BLP is a proper model to deal with non- cooperative decision-makers in decision-making pro- cesses [3]. The aim of the BLP is to formulate problems with hierarchical structure and two levels of decision- making [4]. The ...

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### A Non-linear Integer Bi-level Programming Model for Competitive Facility Location of Distribution Centers

... integer bi-level mathematical model, where the upper level represents the decisions of the leader producer and the lower level administrates the decisions of the follower ...problems, ...

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### On the Solution of Rough Goal Bi-Level Multi-Objective Linear Programming Problem

... Bi-level programming is a powerful and robust technique for solving hierarchical decision making ...Goal programming is one powerful tool that has been proposed for the modeling, analysis and ...

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### A bi-level decision model for customer churn analysis

... on bi-level decision problems has centered on linear bi-level decision problems, for which nearly two dozen algorithms have been ...For bi-level decision problems with non-linear ...

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### Resilience in high level parallel programming languages

... Charm++ [Kale and Krishnan, 1993; Acun et al., 2014] is the most prominent im- plementation of the actor model in HPC. It defines a computation as a collection of migratable actors named chares. The runtime system ...

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