Lingual Arch for Intruding and Uprighting Lower Incisors: This technique was introduced by WINSTON SENIOR. An .036" lower lingual arch is soldered to first molar bands. Distal extensions form occlusal rests on the second molars to prevent distal tipping of the first molars as the incisors are intruded. Four elastic chains are attached to the anterior bridge of the lingual arch with a mosquito forceps. After cementation of the arch, the elastics are stretched to four lingual buttons on the lower incisors . These should be bonded Shubhangi Mani et al. Deep bite correctiontechnique
Hormones, like Insulin play a major part in the control of blood glucose level. The increase in insulin secretion accelerates cellular utilization of glucose, which in turn decreases the blood glucose level. The response of any system can be controlled either by changing the input or by changing the system parameters i.e the system transfer function. Neither of these two cases is feasible in biological system. In biological system, correcting signal may be applied for obtaining the desired performance of the system without disturbing the normal system input. This technique named as “Signal CorrectionTechnique (SCT)” is feasible for application in biological system for achieving desired response.
The memory is an important and universal component of an embedded system. Memories should always be protected from soft errors. In the digital communication, data received must always be same as data transmitted. The information stored in the memory gets changed due to many reasons. Some of the reasons are changes in the operating voltage, changes in the dimensions of the device, etc. But, whenever an error occurs, it must be quickly detected and corrected. There are many techniques that are used to detect and correct the errors. Both memories and nano-memories can be protected from soft errors using an efficient error detection and correctiontechnique. This paper deals about an important error detection and correction method which can be applied for any typ memories. Hence, this paper deals about the error detection and correctiontechnique for EG-LDPC codes. The decoding time for this method is very less. Maximum three cycles are required to detect the error using efficient MLDD. ‘N’ number of cycles are required for error correction.
For linear and nonlinear control systems , -, the output of the system is dependent on the type of input signal applied to the system, as well as on the system transfer function. Response of the system can be modified either by altering the system transfer function or by changing the nature of input signal. In some cases , alteration of the normal actuating signal may not be permitted in a control system. These cases appear in process control systems and in particular in biological control systems. Thus if it is desired to modify the performance of process control systems or biological systems, such modification may be achieved by injecting an additional signal at the system input. Signal CorrectionTechnique (SCT), is not only applicable for realizing the performance of any systems but also to analyze the nature of correcting signal. In the biological system, it is not possible to change system transfer function or command system input signal . So, to realize the performance of the systems, additional signal named as “correcting signal” is required without disturbing the system parameters.
This paper color matching approach is presented to solve the photometric inconsistency problem in mobile panoramic image stitching. The proposed approach consists of two steps. Color correction first corrects the source images to minimize the color and luminance differences between adjacent images. Color blending is then applied to further smooth the color transition between adjacent images to make the seam invisible. A major advantage of the proposed approach is that the processing can be done in parallel with image capturing while the existing approach in  can only establish the cost function to get correction parameters when all the source images are captured
For the active Power Factor Correction in ac-dc converters we mostly use dc-dc converter. Among all the basic dc-dc converters, the boost converter is more effective than others in PFC applications. Mostly we use dc-dc boost converter with the output of ac-dc converter to get power factor approaching unity. This process also has simplicity, higher conversion efficiency and lower harmonic distortion as compared to the other converters. The dc-dc converter which steps up the voltage is known as boost dc-dc converter. This type of converters requires some energy storage element such as inductors, along with switching elements; diodes and transistors. Most of the times the boost PFC type ac-dc converter do not require much filtering because it gets continuous current from the ac source. Only a simple filter consisting of a capacitor can fulfill the requirement of filtering for such converter. However, higher level of filtering is required for all other converters such as buck and buck-boost. This is because their input current is pulsating type. So the BOOST converter used for PFC is our main focus in this paper. In this paper we will analyze different operating modes and controlling of this topology to obtain the best possible results with this topology We will also do some modifications in the structure of conventional boost PFC and its control.
. J.P.Gegner and C.Q.Lee,’ Linear peak current mode control: A simple active power factor correction control technique for continuous conduction mode”, in Proc. IEEE PESC’96 Conf., 1996, pp.196-202.
When data is transmitted through a channel (wired or wireless), some noises may affect the reliability of data. Because of this actual information get changed. This referred as error. Therefore error detection and correction techniques are required at the receiver. Orthogonal code is one of the coding techniques which detect as well as correct the corrupted data. In this method each k-bit data set is converted into n-bit orthogonal code. An n-bit orthogonal code contains n/2 1’s and n/2 0’s, that means parity of this code is always zero. In this paper we present a new methodology to enhance the error correction capability of orthogonal code. This technique is implemented using VHDL and field programmable gate array (FPGA).
Abstract: In Advanced digital communication, the testing of Memory System is more complicated. As the technology, dimensions and operating voltages of the computer electronics are reduced to satisfy the consumer’s which leads to soft errors. The detection and correction of soft errors in the memory system is more susceptible. To protect memory cells from soft errors, we need more Advanced Errors correction codes. One-step Majority of Logic Decodable codes is suitable for Memory Application to detect and correct large number of errors during communication. One type of Euclidean Geometry Low – Density Parity Check (EG-LPDC) Codes are used for Error correction, because it has fault- secure detector capability. In this paper, an Enhanced Majority Logic Decoder/Detector (MLDD) is proposed to detect silent data errors (SDE) using additional logic and in order to reduce the area of Majority gate, the Sorting Network is designed. Thus, the proposed Method reduces the decoding time, area and power consumption. Hence the proposed Method Simulation Results are Shown as Power saving & Area Utilization compared to existing Method (One-step Majority of Logic Decodable codes).
represent the number of ones in the data bits. This has two major advantages, first the number of check bits required will be bare minimum for example 31 data bits require just 5 check bits and second, less overhead in extraction of original message . Last row of matrix contains only redundant information i.e. check bits-II, They are column parity bits of matrix and can be constructed using XOR. The check bit –II spans only across single row. In this scenario they comprise of least redundant size in comparison to the scheme of Eliasshown in figure 1.Thus in our case encoded matrix has clearly less redundancy than any other multiple bit error correction versions of product codes. Matrix size is chosen based on channel efficiency and the level of correction require. Our scheme provides best possible tradeoff between redundancy and efficiency of retransmission. An example of encoded 8 X 19 bit structure is depicted in figure 2. Here 105 data bits are encoded with 47 check bits. The code rate is 0 .69. Code rate exponentially increases with increase in matrix size. Check bits-II are even parity bits of respective columns.
Abstract: When data is stored, compressed, or communicated through a media such as cable or air, sources of noise and other parameters such as EMI, crosstalk, and distance can considerably affect the reliability of these data. Error detection and correction techniques are therefore required. Among other techniques such as Cyclic Redundancy and Solomon Codes; orthogonal coding is one of the codes which can detect errors and correct corrupted data in an efficient way. In this propose work a high efficient combined error detection and correctiontechnique based on the Orthogonal Codes Convolution, Closest Match, and vertical parity. This method will be experimentally simulated using Xilinx software and implement using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).The propose technique will detects 99.99% of the errors and corrects as predicted up to (n/2-1) bits of errors in the received impaired n-bit code.
The solution proposed here does not require knowledge of these offsets or knowledge of the jamming signals’ mod- ulation. No spectral or time domain information about the jammers is assumed. However what is assumed, is the jammers are large and can be identified by a scanning receiver using simple energy detection. The frequency estimates are therefore very coarse and must be corrected as part of the distortion synthesis process. A novel two part frequency correctiontechnique is described in this paper. It involves a combination of FFT and signal correlation to correct the frequency offset in the synthesized distortion.
In this work, a direct UV spectrophotometric method using background correctiontechnique, based on the metal-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid, was used to estimate the content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in baobab fruit pulp, collected from western Sudan (Western Kordofan State).
In this paper, we thus propose parameter optimization for support vector machine to classify mammogram image. The goal of this research is to improve the breast cancer classification performance. We apply genetic algorithm for parameter optimization (parameters C, epsilon, and gamma to be used in the support vector machine). We pre-process the images by de-noising with the median filter technique, adjusting image intensity with the gamma correctiontechnique, then finding the region of interest to choose only the potential area for cancerous cell detection with region growing technique, and finally performing feature extraction to contain texture feature, shape feature, and intensity histogram.
In this paper we introduced techniques for using eye- tracking as an interactive input in the context of net- work visualization, and demonstrated their effective- ness in a controlled user study. Specifically, we dim out edges with endpoints outside of the users view fo- cus, we highlight edges that are visually traced, and increase the saliency of sub-networks around nodes viewed often. We also describe an algorithm that im- proves eye-tracking accuracy by leveraging the known layout of the network. In a user study with twelve participants we showed that these techniques allow users to more accurately determine if two nodes are connected. At the same time we demonstrated the ef- fectiveness of the gaze correctiontechnique quantita- tively. Given the reliability in detecting viewed nodes and edges, the strong effects in the connectivity task, and the success of the gaze correctiontechnique, and the inherent role that eyes are playing in data vi- sualization, we hypothesize that further exploration
Tensile stress-strain curve is of high importance in mechanics of materials particularly in numerical simulations of material deformations. The curve is usually obtained by experiment, but is limited by the necking phenomenon. Engineering stress-strain curve is converted to true stress-strain curve through simple formulas. The conversion, however, is correct up the point of necking. From this point on, the curve should be corrected taking account of stress triaxiality. Over the past several decades, a number of methods such as Bridgeman correctiontechnique have been proposed. In this investigation a new technique based on strain energy in introduced. Strain energy is assumed to be equal to the external work in tensile test. The energy method is compared with different approaches such as Bridgeman-Leroy, Bridgeman, Davidenkov, Siebel and optimization aided numerical simulation. The results indicate that the energy method prediction is very close to numerical simulation, but at the same time it does not differ too significantly from the other approaches studied in this investigation.
ABSTRACT: Scaling down of the CMOS technology is facing a wide variety of issues. One of them is soft errors. These errors occur when memories are exposed to radiation environment. To protect memories from soft errors, advanced coding techniques like Error Correction Codes (ECC) are used. But these ECC codes require very complex encoder and decoder structures and also have higher delay overheads. Recently, a novel Decimal Matrix Code (DMC) method based on decimal algorithm is used to protect memories from multiple cell upsets(MCU) . But it can correct only 5 bit errors and also requires more redundant bits for error correction. In this paper, a modified-DMC is proposed to enhance memory reliability. The proposed method uses DMC and Hamming codes for generating check bits. The proposed method can correct more bit errors with less number of redundant bits when compared to existing DMC. The proposed method also uses the encoder-reuse technique (ERT) to minimize the area overhead of extra circuits without modifying the encoding and decoding processes. The obtained results showed that the proposed modified-DMC has better protection level against large MCUs.
of the constellation points of a digital transmitter, more than on the spectrum regrowth [Grabowski, Ref. 72, Shanmugan, Ref. 74, Saleh, Ref. 75]. When the occupancy of adjacent channels became more of a problem, the research was focused more on the Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) products than the bit error rate. The first practical implementation of a gain based digital predistorter was proposed by James Cavers [Ref. 37] in 1990. Before this method, the majority of the digital predistorters were based on the mapping predistorter principle, in which each possible signal level was directly mapped to another output level. Not much improvement was achieved over the basic idea of the gain based predistorter, because it seems to be practical and efficient. However, the reduction of distortion and the frequency range over which the distortion is corrected, often called signal correction bandwidth was far from the need of most applications, and
ear deformities are not corrected in the early neonatal period, surgical correction is often necessary and is typically completed after the child reaches age 5 or 6 years, when they have already been subjected to their peers’ scrutiny. 1 Furthermore,
ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a method of improving the power factor of a three phase rectifier by using a interleaved boost Converter with Power Factor Correction Controller. When compared to Power Factor Correction and THD minimizations of three phase rectifier with single phase rectifier , Power Factor Correction of three phase rectifier with interleaved boost converter Method is good because here THD is very low . Average Current Control technique has been discussed in this paper. Modelling of the PFC Controller using MATLAB/ Simulink is carried out and the results are verified . .