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Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

The split of the second stage respondents according to study programmes (see Picture 2) is as follows: Food Safety and Quality (11%); Food Technology (14%); Geodesy (13%); Engineering of Real Estate Measurement (5%); Automation Engineering (12%); Computer Network Administration (22%); Gardening and Landscape Design (8%); Infotronics (10%); Sustainable Farming (5%). Having estimated the split of the respondents according to study programmes, it was observed that the most active participants were students from Computer Network Administration study programme (22%), whilst the study programmes of Sustainable Farming and Engineering of Real Estate Measurement were represented by the lowest number of participants (5% per each of the programmes).

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Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

The principles of good governance are beginning to apply in Polish education. Pressure to improve the quality of both educational processes and results of education is now noticeable (Fazlagić 2009, p.6). The concept of quality in public services (education, upbringing and education are among public services of social nature) is quite complex. It is possible to state that "good governance" largely depends on quality management in public institutions as it equips political authorities and the managers of public institutions with necessary tools to achieve socially acceptable goals (Opolski, Modzelewski 2004, p. 13). One method of defining quality is to highlight the substance of services. It consists of creating a multi-dimensional value. The second way is focused on the perception and experience of clients and expresses their satisfaction with provided services. Student and their parents are clients for schools. In this context, quality refers to the reduction of the gap between clients' expectations and experiences. The third way is the active participation of the public and other stakeholders in the creation of quality (Opolski, Modzelewski 2004, p. 14-15).

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Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

only for storage, management, analysis but also visualization. Huang et al. (2015) expanded the definition of big data into 5 Vs: (1) Volume (big volume of data), (2) Variety (of data types), (3) Velocity (high velocity of data generation and updating), (4) Veracity (of acquired data), and (5) Value (big value). While the first four Vs are concerned about data collection, preprocessing, transmission, and storage, the last V focuses on value of data. To create value, volumes of data should be processed to determine the relevance within the datasets (Varma et al. 2016). Thus it is not the amount of data which is important, but how to do with the data matters. Varma et al. 2016 states that data are unorganized facts which need to be processed so that they will become useful. Insights need to be extracted from the massive data to lead to better decisions. Big data, as the key research subject, consists of the basis of future data driven decision making techniques and applications (Kolomvatsos, Anagnostopoulos & Hadjiefthymiades 2015, and Batarseh & Latif 2016).

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Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

At the end of the Master (2014-2015), held for six consecutive years at the University of Bologna, Italy, I felt it was particularly important to bring together in one collection all the reports written on the "project work" carried out by the students in the various work placements relating to the various course subjects in the third volume of the book series, "Training and research in the field of cultural heritage". Each report is followed by a review written by those who achieved the best exam results on completion of the Master. The book provides an account of the acquired training skills, commendably commented by these students.

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Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

should be an acid, probably distracted by the large number of H atoms in the formula). In this respect the 2013-14 result should appear better since the lack of the acid-base problem was not substituted by an organic one because there was not something analogous in the first questionnaire. It seems however, that the pupils approach the whole curriculum with caution and skepticism, try to rely on long past recovered ideas and knowledge and do not attempt a rigorous and extended incorporation of new facts and ideas to their chemical background. Given the large amount of teaching carried out at senior high-school grade A on acids and bases in 2010, their performance there did not substantiate it and, in the case of the argument that this was knowledge not appropriate for their background (something that most probably was called upon in order to substitute the chapter with a different one) it did not have an important impact on the attitude of students towards chemistry. The lack of solid and clear criteria-based assessment and consequently a stable grading policy by the government in relation to the selection of high-school students that will enter University courses, renders them reluctant to enroll themselves (as well as their teachers too) into a project of understanding principles and properties but rather tends to let them utilize the well-documented memorizing process which enhances the chance of mechanically solving problems (although related to Chemistry being almost purely mathematical in nature). As a result, any reform of the educational program is not practically getting through in terms of accomplishing the alteration and probably elevation of the understanding of chemical principles by secondary education pupils (Sadler, 2005). In our opinion, this is the main reason for the stagnation observed over several decades in the degree

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Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

Educational Alternatives, Volume 14, 2016

The best years of the system of higher education (2000th) were changed to the intense period of new adaptation. The state continued to change "rules of the game". Only higher education institutions that activity was approved by governing bodies and corresponded to the criteria of efficiency developed by them could realize the advantages. The number of higher education institutions and especially of their subsidiaries were reduced. So the number of state universities in the Russian Federation decreased from 655 to 548 units from 2005 to 2014, while the number of their subsidiaries accordingly from 1100 to 843. In Novosibirsk region this process almost did not affect head universities (reduction from 16 to 14 units), but touched their subsidiaries which number in the reporting period was reduced from 11 to 7 units (Regions of Russia 2015). However, the part of higher education institutions had new opportunities of expansion of the infrastructure due to accession of colleges. Gradually the structure of the budgetary (free) educational places was changed with the purpose to raise a number of students on engineering specialties and to reduce – on humanitarian.

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