The work presented in this paper discuss the combination of pedal follower and torque based approach for the precise estimation of throttle angle required for the given torque demand. In the proposed method, the mass airflow is not considered for the throttle angle calculation which causes the lesser computational time and storage memory in the controller. As the torque demand is also included in the throttle angle estimation, proposed electronic control system can be easily integrated with the other systems such as catalyst heating, traction control, etc. In the proposed control system, the complexity in controlling the electronic throttle system due to non-nonlinearities such as friction and limp home spring is also addressed in this work using the mathematical and compensators. Performance of the proposed control system with compensators was tested using step, sinusoidal and ramp input signals and the results prove that the designed control system has the ability to follow the calculated throttle angle for both simulated and actual conditions. Also the throttle angle error value was found to be very marginal with compensators to handle the nonlinearities in the system.
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The typical feature of the electronic throttle valve includes a stiff spring, which is used as a fail-safe mechanism. When no power is applied, this spring act as a force to push the valve plate to return to the position slightly above the closed position, so that the small amount of air can be supplied into the engine in order to prevent a sudden lock of engine revolution while the vehicle is in motion when no control is available (Jiao & Shen, 2012). Moreover, the motion of the valve plate is limited between the maximum and minimum angles. These limited stops are realized by a highly stiff spring, ideally with infinite gain.
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In this section a non-linear PID controller that deals with the nonlinear difficulties is proposed. To use a linear PID control for a nonlinear systems, the controller gains , , and are tuned. Most of the tuning rules are based on obtaining linear model of the system, either through running step tests or by linearzing a nonlinear model around the operating steady-state, and then computing parameters values of the controller that accomplished the stability, performance and robustness objectives in the closed loop System .While the use of linear models for the PID controller tuning makes the tuning process easy, the underlying dynamics of many processes are often highly complex, due to inherent nonlinearity of the process and then the controller may be unable to stabilize the closed loop system and may call for extensive re-tuning of the controller parameters. The shortcomings of classical controllers in dealing with complex process dynamics, together with the abundance of such complexities in modern day processes, have motivated a significant and growing body of research work within the area of nonlinear process control over the past two decades, leading to the development of several practically. The nonlinear control strategies can deal effectively with a wide range of process control problems such as nonlinearities, constraints, uncertainties, and time delays . In this work a nonlinear PID controller is proposed for the electronic throttle valve system. The results showed the effectiveness of this type of controller in dealing with the inherent nonlinearity in system model and in forcing the state to the desired point. In the proposed controller, the arc tan function is used in the integral part instead of the direct error. The advantage of using the arc tan function (atan in MATLAB language) is the ability for attenuating the effect of variable disturbances representing by discontinuous nonlinearity with uncertain
During this area of globalization, the automotive sector has been one of the major contributor to the nation income. With Proton and Perodua lining up our local automotive manufacturer with some other global manufacturer such Toyota, Honda, Ford and BMW, our automotive sector look quite promising in the next few years. Nowadays, all of the car manufacturer are targeting to build an earth efficiency vehicle (EEV) that can improve the driveability, fuel economy and the emission of the vehicle (Pavković et al. 2006). One way to achieve these is by using the Electronic Throttle.
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In many circumstances, the car does not need to use the maximum engine power. Therefore torque and power output must be controlled. It is the duty of the throttle valve in internal combustion engines. This instrument controls the amount of input air to engine by butterfly valve then fuel injection will diminish and torque and power grows . Usual throttle valves are controlled by 2 mechanisms: 1- Mechanical Throttle 2- Electronic Throttle. In this paper we will research on Electronic Throttle. In Electronic Throttle, ECU controls butterfly valve’s angle. This instrument consists of 5 parts : DC motor , butterfly valve, spring , gears and potentiometer. For accurate controlling of this type of throttle, physical model must be recognized. In this research at first a physical model has been yield by mechanical equations then for recognizing of unknown parameters, estimation method was used [2-4].
The strategy provided with the Euro 12 was able to determine engine angular position using the standard 5.4L 3V camshaft and crankshaft sensor signals. Instead o f a “torque-demand-based” electronic throttle control strategy as used in production, a much simpler “pedal follower” strategy was implemented. All the requirements for dynamometer testing could be satisfied using this method. Two-dimensional maps for fuel injection and ignition timing were based on engine speed and load (intake mass a irflo w rate), and closed-loop idle speed and air-fuel ratio controls were utilized.
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It is an automobile technology which electronically "connects" the accelerator pedal to the throttle, replacing a mechanical. Fig. 3 shows schematic diagram of drive by electronic throttle system. In this type of system, the position of the throttle valve can be controlled directly by NI DAQ 6009. There is no need of additional throttle valve as mention in drive by wire method. Thus, when the vehicle enters the speed limit zones, the control action takes place and the maximum vehicle speed is automatically controlled.
The Throttle position sensor (TPS) is mounted on the throttle body and converts the throttle valve angle into an electrical signal. As the throttle opens, the signal voltage increases (B. Prem Anand, C.G. Saravanan). The sensor is usually located on the butterfly spindle/shaft so that it can directly monitor the position of the throttle. More advanced forms of the sensor are also used, for example an extra closed throttle position sensor (CTPS) may be employed to indicate that the throttle is completely closed. Some engine control units (ECUs) also control the throttle position electronic throttle control (ETC) or "drive by wire" systems and if that is done the position sensor is used in a feedback loop to enable that control (McKay, D., Nichols, G., and Schreurs, B).
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Research on nonlinear control based on feedback control enhanced by the Lyapunov design method has been in progress since the early 1990’s. Krstić et al . proposed this type of control as “Back-stepping Design” , and Zhou et al . then systematized it as “Adaptive Back-stepping Control ”. This back-stepping control (BSC) is a promising method applicable to electronic throttle control as a means of solving nonlinear problems, such as the backlash of the gear train and frictional characteristics of rotational sliding. Pan et al . proposed a relevant ap- proach , but this focuses on state observers, and does not take advantage of the benefit obtained from BSC. The author et al . has achieved high responsive- ness with the aid of sliding-mode control  . However, nonlinear compensa- tion for fine control is insufficient.
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Throttle control uses the same two patterns discussed above, but applies them in a slightly different manner. While the aircraft is operating, the throttle will always have a positive value, unlike the rudder signal, which is usually set to zero. A similar potentiometer configuration is used for the throttle input, and the values are converted to an integer ranging from 0 to 25, with 0 being OFF and 25 being full throttle. In a model airplane implementation, a 20A DC motor is appropriate. Again, the duty cycle is determined empirically with a function generator.
As a first step for comparing the two modelling methodologies, we have used the shock tube case. The shock tube set-up resembles the conditions under consideration of the throttle case examined, thus the configuration involves interaction of pressurized liquid at ~100bar (left state) with vapour/liquid mixture at ~892Pa i.e. saturation conditions (right state). For the barotropic model the pressure levels correspond to the density of the liquid/vapour phases. On the other hand, for the 2 phase model the vapour fraction has to be specified explicitly in the mixture region. In order to be consistent with the barotropic model, a vapour fraction of 0.99 was used. Velocity is initially zero everywhere. The resolution employed is 1000 equispaced finite volumes, while the domain extends from -2m to 2m and the solution is taken at the time instant of 1ms.
The operation of fuel injection engine is controlled by Engine Management System (EMS) that is made of several main sub-systems such as fuel injection control system, ignition timing control system, air induction control system and others . The air induction control system, also known as Electronics Throttle Control system (ETCS) comprises of dedicated sensors, actuators and engine control unit (ECU) , purposely to filter, meter and measure the intake air flow into the engine. The operation of ETCS involve with real-time
As the com ponent efficiencies o f vapour com pression refrigeration system s approach their upper limits, the losses due to throttling w ithin the cycle becom e more significant, especially with the new er refrigerants. Two- phase expanders to replace the throttle valve and recover pow er from the loss o f the throttling process then becom e m ore attractive. T he use o f tw in screw m achines for this purpose is considered with the pow er so recovered to be used in a variety o f ways. T hese include direct drive o f the main com pressor, an electric generator, or another com pressor or direct recom pression o f part o f the vapour formed during expansion within the sam e pair o f rotors. IN TRO DU CTIO N
During the experiment, the throttle position is kept at around 45° (open loop) which is about midway between the end stops to allow the maximum amplitude of movement for nominally linear operation. From the experimental input and output data a transfer function is generated using the System Identification Toolbox from Mathworks. In fact, the same procedure is used to generate a transfer function from the nonlinear throttle valve model. Although, strictly, the transfer function is a notion applying only to linear systems, the result obtained with a nonlinear plant is, arguably, similar to that obtained analytically by the method of linearisation about the operating point. This is certainly true for continuous nonlinearities but the stick slip friction, which is significant in the throttle valve application, is discontinuous. Despite this there is no other known way to obtain a better transfer function model for control system design. The restriction of continuous nonlinearities does mean that the transfer function model cannot be heavily relied upon. This is only being used for the initial controller design with the possibility of having to make controller adjustments following the first experimental trials.
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Carburetted 2-stroke engines are a worldwide pandemic. There are over 50 million 2-stroke cycle engines in Asia alone, powering motorbikes, mopeds, “three-wheelers”, “auto-rickshaws”, “tuk-tuks”, and “tricycles”. These carbureted 2-stroke engines are characterized by high levels of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Direct injection is a technology that has shown a great ability to reduce these emissions while at the same time improve fuel economy. A prototype kit has been designed for use in retrofitting existing carbureted two-stroke engines to direct injection. The kit was designed for use on a TVS 50; a motorcycle from the INDIA that is commonly used as a transportation. It is however, a relatively common engine design and TVS manufactures similar models for sale all over the world. The conventional fuel injection system kit incorporates the Orbital air blast direct injection system. This injection system has been implemented in TVS 50. The design involved replacing the existing cylinder head with one designed to incorporate the direct injection valves as well as a modified combustion chamber. An external compressor was added to supply compressed air to the system. The carburettor was refined with a throttle body outfitted with a position indicator, and an encoder system was added to provide speed and position feedback to the engine control unit (ECU). Once design and manufacture of the system was complete, it was installed on the motorcycle. The motorcycle was then mounted in a low inertia eddy current dynamometer test cell for calibration. Calibration was done on the dynamometer for power and engine performance. The system was also tuned in real world road tests for drivability. When calibrations were complete emissions and fuel consumption measurements were taken for the vehicle. The results showed an 88% reduction in hydrocarbon emissions and a 72% reduction in carbon monoxide emissions versus the baseline engine, while at the same time virtually eliminating visible smoke. The CFI system also showed a 32% increase in fuel economy, and had similar to better performance than the carbureted engine. The CFI system also showed improved cranking and idling characteristics over the carbureted engine.
The case of acceleration and deceleration may seem to be connected and simply antipodal to each other at first. However, the case of deceleration is distinguished from acceleration after closer observation. Acceleration only occurs in vehicles when the driver depresses the pedal and causes an increase in the throttle position. In contrast, deceleration of the passenger car may happen under two very different circumstances. First, the vehicle may slow down due to a surface gradient even if the driver depresses the throttle pedal by some amount. Moving the vehicle uphill requires more power; however, without the increase in throttle opening the vehicle speed reduces. In the second scenario, the driver may choose to apply the vehicle’s brakes. The application of brakes would tend to decrease power output to the vehicle’s tyres and lead to deceleration.
Different artificial techniques can be used to develop the Membership functions and rule bases such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, evolutionary strategy, Kalman filters or numerical optimization. In this paper, the fuzzy logic membership functions for the FLC and its associated rule base were determined heuristically. The input membership functions of Height and Velocity can be shown as in Fig.4 and Fig.5 respectively. Similarly, the output membership functions of the Elevator Deflection and the Throttle Deflection can be shown as in Fig.6 and Fig.7 respectively. Both cases have been scaled between 0 and 1.
PA 416 ATC plus: PA stands for prospair series of the machine which is currently being used for the project study and experimentation. 415 represent the horsepower of that engine. ATC represents that this machine has automatic temperature control. An air compressor is a device that converts power (using on electric motor. Diesel or gasoline engine, etc.) Into potential energy stored in pressurized air (i.e., compressed air). By one several methods. An air compressor forces more and more air into a storage tank, increasing the pressure. This compressor package is controlled by regulation system major elements they are throttle lever and piston cylinder assembly. These elements are used to control the engine rpm.
It turns the conventional hydraulic brake into an even more powerful mechatronic system. Its microcomputer is integrated into the car’s data network and processes information from various electronic control units. In this way, electric impulses and sensor signals can be instantly converted into braking commands, providing a marked safety and comfort gain for drivers.
Throttle pressure is always kept in accordance with the opening angle of the engine throttle valve. This throttle pressure acts on the primary regulator valve and, accordingly, line pressure is regulated in response to the throttle valve opening. In the fully hydraulic controlled automatic transmission, throttle pressure is used for regulating line pressure and as signal pressure for up-shift and down-shift of the transmission. In the ECT, however, throttle pressure is used only for regulating line pressure. Consequently, improper adjustment of the transmission throttle cable may result in a line pressure that is too high or too low. This, in turn, will lead to shifting shock or clutch and brake slippage.